Bioactive Lignans from Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. stem bark with cytotoxic potential.J Ethnopharmacol 2014; 152(1):106-12JE
Zanthoxylum alatum is used in traditional medicinal systems for number of disorders like cholera, diabetes, cough, diarrhea, fever, headache, microbial infections, toothache, inflammation and cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Zanthoxylum alatum stem bark for its cytotoxic potential and to isolate the bioactive constituents.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Cytotoxicity of the different extracts and isolated compounds was studied on lung carcinoma cell line (A549) and pancreatic carcinoma cell line (MIA-PaCa) using MTT assay. Isolation of compounds from most active extract (petroleum ether) was done on silica gel column. Structure elucidation was done by using various spectrophotometric techniques like UV, IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectroscopy. The type of cell death caused by most active compound C was explored by fluorescence microscopy using the acridine orange/ethidium bromide method.
Petroleum ether extract of plant has shown significant cytotoxic potential. Three lignans sesamin (A), kobusin (B), and 4'O demethyl magnolin (C) has been isolated. All lignans showed cytotoxic activities in different ranges. Compound C was the novel bioactive compound from a plant source and found to be most active. In apoptosis study, treatment caused typical apoptotic morphological changes. It enhances the apoptosis at IC50 dose (21.72 µg/mL) however showing necrotic cell death at higher dose after 24h on MIA-PaCa cell lines.
Petroleum ether extract (60-80 °C) of Zanthoxylum alatum has cytotoxic potential. The lignans isolated from the petroleum ether extract were responsible for the cytotoxic potential of the extract. 4'O demethyl magnolin was novel compound from Zanthoxylum alatum. Hence the Zanthoxylum alatum can be further explored for the development of anticancer drug.