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Oxidation of Orange G by persulfate activated by Fe(II), Fe(III) and zero valent iron (ZVI).
Chemosphere. 2014 Apr; 101:86-92.C

Abstract

Persulfate (PS) was employed in the oxidation of Orange G (OG), an azo dye commonly found in textile wastewaters. Activation of PS was conducted with iron to generate sulfate free radicals (SO4(-)) with high redox potential capable to oxidize most of the organics in water. Identification of oxidation intermediates was carried out by analyzing at different times organic by-products generated from treatment of a concentrate dye solution (11.6 mM) with 153 mM of PS and 20 mM of Fe(II) at 20 °C. Intermediate reaction products (mainly phenol (PH) and benzoquinone (BQ), and in less extent aniline, phenolic compounds and naphthalene type compounds with quinone groups) were identified by GC/MS and HPLC, and an oxidation pathway was proposed for the oxidation of OG with iron activated PS. The effect of iron valence (0, II and III) in the oxidation of an aqueous solution of OG (containing 0.1 mM) was studied in a 0.5 L batch reactor at 20 °C. Initial activator and PS concentrations employed were both 1 mM. Complete pollutant removal was achieved within the first 30 min when iron II or III were employed as activators. Quinone intermediates generated during pollutant oxidation may act as electron shuttles, allowing the reduction of Fe(III) into Fe(II) in the redox cycling of iron. Therefore, activation of PS by Fe(III) allowed complete OG removal. When zero valent iron (ZVI) was employed (particle diameter size 0.74 mm) the limiting step in SO4(-) generation was the surface reaction between ZVI and the oxidant yielding a lower oxidation rate of the dye. An increase in the oxidant dosage (0.2 mM OG, 2 mM Fe(III) and 6 mM PS) allowed complete pollutant and ecotoxicity removal, as well as mineralization close to 75%.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Dpt. Ingenieria Química, Facultad Químicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: srvega@quim.ucm.es.Dpt. Ingenieria Química, Facultad Químicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain.Dpt. Ingenieria Química, Facultad Químicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain.Dpt. Ingenieria Química, Facultad Químicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain.Dpt. Ingenieria Química, Facultad Químicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Pub Type(s)

Evaluation Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24439838

Citation

Rodriguez, S, et al. "Oxidation of Orange G By Persulfate Activated By Fe(II), Fe(III) and Zero Valent Iron (ZVI)." Chemosphere, vol. 101, 2014, pp. 86-92.
Rodriguez S, Vasquez L, Costa D, et al. Oxidation of Orange G by persulfate activated by Fe(II), Fe(III) and zero valent iron (ZVI). Chemosphere. 2014;101:86-92.
Rodriguez, S., Vasquez, L., Costa, D., Romero, A., & Santos, A. (2014). Oxidation of Orange G by persulfate activated by Fe(II), Fe(III) and zero valent iron (ZVI). Chemosphere, 101, 86-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.12.037
Rodriguez S, et al. Oxidation of Orange G By Persulfate Activated By Fe(II), Fe(III) and Zero Valent Iron (ZVI). Chemosphere. 2014;101:86-92. PubMed PMID: 24439838.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Oxidation of Orange G by persulfate activated by Fe(II), Fe(III) and zero valent iron (ZVI). AU - Rodriguez,S, AU - Vasquez,L, AU - Costa,D, AU - Romero,A, AU - Santos,A, Y1 - 2014/01/16/ PY - 2013/07/30/received PY - 2013/12/11/revised PY - 2013/12/12/accepted PY - 2014/1/21/entrez PY - 2014/1/21/pubmed PY - 2014/9/25/medline KW - Dye KW - Ecotoxicity KW - Iron valence KW - Orange G KW - Oxidation pathway KW - Persulfate SP - 86 EP - 92 JF - Chemosphere JO - Chemosphere VL - 101 N2 - Persulfate (PS) was employed in the oxidation of Orange G (OG), an azo dye commonly found in textile wastewaters. Activation of PS was conducted with iron to generate sulfate free radicals (SO4(-)) with high redox potential capable to oxidize most of the organics in water. Identification of oxidation intermediates was carried out by analyzing at different times organic by-products generated from treatment of a concentrate dye solution (11.6 mM) with 153 mM of PS and 20 mM of Fe(II) at 20 °C. Intermediate reaction products (mainly phenol (PH) and benzoquinone (BQ), and in less extent aniline, phenolic compounds and naphthalene type compounds with quinone groups) were identified by GC/MS and HPLC, and an oxidation pathway was proposed for the oxidation of OG with iron activated PS. The effect of iron valence (0, II and III) in the oxidation of an aqueous solution of OG (containing 0.1 mM) was studied in a 0.5 L batch reactor at 20 °C. Initial activator and PS concentrations employed were both 1 mM. Complete pollutant removal was achieved within the first 30 min when iron II or III were employed as activators. Quinone intermediates generated during pollutant oxidation may act as electron shuttles, allowing the reduction of Fe(III) into Fe(II) in the redox cycling of iron. Therefore, activation of PS by Fe(III) allowed complete OG removal. When zero valent iron (ZVI) was employed (particle diameter size 0.74 mm) the limiting step in SO4(-) generation was the surface reaction between ZVI and the oxidant yielding a lower oxidation rate of the dye. An increase in the oxidant dosage (0.2 mM OG, 2 mM Fe(III) and 6 mM PS) allowed complete pollutant and ecotoxicity removal, as well as mineralization close to 75%. SN - 1879-1298 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24439838/Oxidation_of_Orange_G_by_persulfate_activated_by_Fe_II__Fe_III__and_zero_valent_iron__ZVI__ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0045-6535(13)01702-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -