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Weight loss composition is one-fourth fat-free mass: a critical review and critique of this widely cited rule.
Obes Rev. 2014 Apr; 15(4):310-21.OR

Abstract

Maximizing fat loss while preserving lean tissue mass and function is a central goal of modern obesity treatments. A widely cited rule guiding expected loss of lean tissue as fat-free mass (FFM) states that approximately one-fourth of weight loss will be FFM (i.e. ΔFFM/ΔWeight = ∼0.25), with the remaining three-fourths being fat mass. This review examines the dynamic relationships between FFM, fat mass and weight changes that follow induction of negative energy balance with hypocaloric dieting and/or exercise. Historical developments in the field are traced with the 'Quarter FFM Rule' used as a framework to examine evolving concepts on obesity tissue, excess weight and what is often cited as 'Forbes' Rule'. Temporal effects in the fractional contribution of FFM to changes in body weight are examined as are lean tissue moderating effects such as ageing, inactivity and exercise that frequently accompany structured low-calorie diet weight loss protocols. Losses of lean tissue with dieting typically tend to be small, raising questions about study design, power and applied measurement method reliability. Our review elicits important questions related to the fractional loss of lean tissues with dieting and provides a foundation for future research on this topic.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24447775

Citation

Heymsfield, S B., et al. "Weight Loss Composition Is One-fourth Fat-free Mass: a Critical Review and Critique of This Widely Cited Rule." Obesity Reviews : an Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, vol. 15, no. 4, 2014, pp. 310-21.
Heymsfield SB, Gonzalez MC, Shen W, et al. Weight loss composition is one-fourth fat-free mass: a critical review and critique of this widely cited rule. Obes Rev. 2014;15(4):310-21.
Heymsfield, S. B., Gonzalez, M. C., Shen, W., Redman, L., & Thomas, D. (2014). Weight loss composition is one-fourth fat-free mass: a critical review and critique of this widely cited rule. Obesity Reviews : an Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 15(4), 310-21. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12143
Heymsfield SB, et al. Weight Loss Composition Is One-fourth Fat-free Mass: a Critical Review and Critique of This Widely Cited Rule. Obes Rev. 2014;15(4):310-21. PubMed PMID: 24447775.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Weight loss composition is one-fourth fat-free mass: a critical review and critique of this widely cited rule. AU - Heymsfield,S B, AU - Gonzalez,M C C, AU - Shen,W, AU - Redman,L, AU - Thomas,D, Y1 - 2014/01/22/ PY - 2013/08/16/received PY - 2013/12/10/revised PY - 2013/12/10/accepted PY - 2014/1/23/entrez PY - 2014/1/23/pubmed PY - 2015/3/31/medline KW - Body composition KW - energy expenditure KW - mathematical model KW - obesity SP - 310 EP - 21 JF - Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity JO - Obes Rev VL - 15 IS - 4 N2 - Maximizing fat loss while preserving lean tissue mass and function is a central goal of modern obesity treatments. A widely cited rule guiding expected loss of lean tissue as fat-free mass (FFM) states that approximately one-fourth of weight loss will be FFM (i.e. ΔFFM/ΔWeight = ∼0.25), with the remaining three-fourths being fat mass. This review examines the dynamic relationships between FFM, fat mass and weight changes that follow induction of negative energy balance with hypocaloric dieting and/or exercise. Historical developments in the field are traced with the 'Quarter FFM Rule' used as a framework to examine evolving concepts on obesity tissue, excess weight and what is often cited as 'Forbes' Rule'. Temporal effects in the fractional contribution of FFM to changes in body weight are examined as are lean tissue moderating effects such as ageing, inactivity and exercise that frequently accompany structured low-calorie diet weight loss protocols. Losses of lean tissue with dieting typically tend to be small, raising questions about study design, power and applied measurement method reliability. Our review elicits important questions related to the fractional loss of lean tissues with dieting and provides a foundation for future research on this topic. SN - 1467-789X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24447775/Weight_loss_composition_is_one_fourth_fat_free_mass:_a_critical_review_and_critique_of_this_widely_cited_rule_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -