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S-(-)equol producing status not associated with breast cancer risk among low isoflavone-consuming US postmenopausal women undergoing a physician-recommended breast biopsy.
Nutr Res 2014; 34(2):116-25NR

Abstract

Soy foods are the richest sources of isoflavones, mainly daidzein and genistein. Soy isoflavones are structurally similar to the steroid hormone 17β-estradiol and may protect against breast cancer. S-(-)equol, a metabolite of the soy isoflavone daidzein, has a higher bioavailability and greater affinity for estrogen receptor β than daidzein. Approximately one-third of the Western population is able to produce S-(-)equol, and the ability is linked to certain gut microbes. We hypothesized that the prevalence of breast cancer, ductal hyperplasia, and overall breast pathology will be lower among S-(-)equol producing, as compared with nonproducing, postmenopausal women undergoing a breast biopsy. We tested our hypothesis using a cross-sectional study design. Usual diets of the participants were supplemented with 1 soy bar per day for 3 consecutive days. Liquid chromatography-multiple reaction ion monitoring mass spectrometry analysis of urine from 143 subjects revealed 25 (17.5%) as S-(-)equol producers. We found no statistically significant associations between S-(-)equol producing status and overall breast pathology (odds ratio [OR], 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-1.89), ductal hyperplasia (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.20-3.41), or breast cancer (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.16-1.87). However, the mean dietary isoflavone intake was much lower (0.3 mg/d) than in previous reports. Given that the amount of S-(-)equol produced in the gut depends on the amount of daidzein exposure, the low soy intake coupled with lower prevalence of S-(-)equol producing status in the study population favors toward null associations. Findings from our study could be used for further investigations on S-(-)equol producing status and disease risk.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. Electronic address: mandeep.virk-baker@nih.gov.Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; The UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center, Birmingham, AL, USA. Electronic address: sbarnes@uab.edu.The UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center, Birmingham, AL, USA; Department of Surgery, Surgical Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. Electronic address: helen.krontiras@ccc.uab.edu.Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; The UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center, Birmingham, AL, USA. Electronic address: tnagy@uab.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24461312

Citation

Virk-Baker, Mandeep K., et al. "S-(-)equol Producing Status Not Associated With Breast Cancer Risk Among Low Isoflavone-consuming US Postmenopausal Women Undergoing a Physician-recommended Breast Biopsy." Nutrition Research (New York, N.Y.), vol. 34, no. 2, 2014, pp. 116-25.
Virk-Baker MK, Barnes S, Krontiras H, et al. S-(-)equol producing status not associated with breast cancer risk among low isoflavone-consuming US postmenopausal women undergoing a physician-recommended breast biopsy. Nutr Res. 2014;34(2):116-25.
Virk-Baker, M. K., Barnes, S., Krontiras, H., & Nagy, T. R. (2014). S-(-)equol producing status not associated with breast cancer risk among low isoflavone-consuming US postmenopausal women undergoing a physician-recommended breast biopsy. Nutrition Research (New York, N.Y.), 34(2), pp. 116-25. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2013.12.002.
Virk-Baker MK, et al. S-(-)equol Producing Status Not Associated With Breast Cancer Risk Among Low Isoflavone-consuming US Postmenopausal Women Undergoing a Physician-recommended Breast Biopsy. Nutr Res. 2014;34(2):116-25. PubMed PMID: 24461312.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - S-(-)equol producing status not associated with breast cancer risk among low isoflavone-consuming US postmenopausal women undergoing a physician-recommended breast biopsy. AU - Virk-Baker,Mandeep K, AU - Barnes,Stephen, AU - Krontiras,Helen, AU - Nagy,Tim R, Y1 - 2013/12/18/ PY - 2013/08/27/received PY - 2013/12/09/revised PY - 2013/12/11/accepted PY - 2014/1/28/entrez PY - 2014/1/28/pubmed PY - 2014/9/12/medline KW - AA KW - AS KW - African American KW - Asian American KW - BMI KW - Breast biopsy KW - Breast cancer KW - CI KW - Dietary soy isoflavones KW - Ductal hyperplasia KW - ER KW - ER+ KW - ER– KW - FFQ KW - Food Frequency Questionnaire KW - LC-MRM-MS KW - OR KW - Postmenopausal women KW - S-(−)equol status KW - SSQ KW - Soy Screen Questionnaire KW - UAB KW - University of Alabama at Birmingham. KW - body mass index KW - confidence interval KW - estrogen receptor KW - estrogen receptor negative KW - estrogen receptor positive KW - liquid chromatography–multiple reaction ion monitoring mass spectrometry KW - odds ratio SP - 116 EP - 25 JF - Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) JO - Nutr Res VL - 34 IS - 2 N2 - Soy foods are the richest sources of isoflavones, mainly daidzein and genistein. Soy isoflavones are structurally similar to the steroid hormone 17β-estradiol and may protect against breast cancer. S-(-)equol, a metabolite of the soy isoflavone daidzein, has a higher bioavailability and greater affinity for estrogen receptor β than daidzein. Approximately one-third of the Western population is able to produce S-(-)equol, and the ability is linked to certain gut microbes. We hypothesized that the prevalence of breast cancer, ductal hyperplasia, and overall breast pathology will be lower among S-(-)equol producing, as compared with nonproducing, postmenopausal women undergoing a breast biopsy. We tested our hypothesis using a cross-sectional study design. Usual diets of the participants were supplemented with 1 soy bar per day for 3 consecutive days. Liquid chromatography-multiple reaction ion monitoring mass spectrometry analysis of urine from 143 subjects revealed 25 (17.5%) as S-(-)equol producers. We found no statistically significant associations between S-(-)equol producing status and overall breast pathology (odds ratio [OR], 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-1.89), ductal hyperplasia (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.20-3.41), or breast cancer (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.16-1.87). However, the mean dietary isoflavone intake was much lower (0.3 mg/d) than in previous reports. Given that the amount of S-(-)equol produced in the gut depends on the amount of daidzein exposure, the low soy intake coupled with lower prevalence of S-(-)equol producing status in the study population favors toward null associations. Findings from our study could be used for further investigations on S-(-)equol producing status and disease risk. SN - 1879-0739 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24461312/S____equol_producing_status_not_associated_with_breast_cancer_risk_among_low_isoflavone_consuming_US_postmenopausal_women_undergoing_a_physician_recommended_breast_biopsy_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0271-5317(13)00282-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -