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Adverse effects from clenbuterol and ractopamine on nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the underlying mechanism.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e85482.Plos

Abstract

In the present study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans assay system to investigate in vivo toxicity from clentuberol and ractopamine and the possible underlying mechanism. Both acute and prolonged exposures to clentuberol or ractopamine decreased brood size and locomotion behavior, and induced intestinal autofluorescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Although acute exposure to the examined concentrations of clentuberol or ractopamine did not induce lethality, prolonged exposure to 10 µg/L of clentuberol and ractopamine reduced lifespan. At relatively high concentrations, ractopamine exhibited more severe toxicity than clentuberol on nematodes. Overexpression of sod-2 gene encoding a Mn-SOD to prevent induction of oxidative stress effectively inhibited toxicity from clentuberol or ractopamine. Besides oxidative stress, we found that clentuberol might reduce lifespan through influencing insulin/IGF signaling pathway; however, ractopamine might reduce lifespan through affecting both insulin/IGF signaling pathway and TOR signaling pathway. Ractopamine more severely decreased expression levels of daf-16, sgk-1, skn-1, and aak-2 genes than clentuberol, and increased expression levels of daf-2 and age-1 genes at the examined concentration. Therefore, the C. elegans assay system may be useful for assessing the possible toxicity from weight loss agents, and clentuberol and ractopamine may induce toxicity through different molecular mechanisms.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Life Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, China.Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering in Ministry of Education, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, China.Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering in Ministry of Education, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, China.School of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Life Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, China ; Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering in Ministry of Education, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, China.Xiuli Biological Technology Co., Ltd. Changzhou, China.Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering in Ministry of Education, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, China.Jiangsu Province Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Institute, Nanjing, China.Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering in Ministry of Education, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24465573

Citation

Zhuang, Ziheng, et al. "Adverse Effects From Clenbuterol and Ractopamine On Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans and the Underlying Mechanism." PloS One, vol. 9, no. 1, 2014, pp. e85482.
Zhuang Z, Zhao Y, Wu Q, et al. Adverse effects from clenbuterol and ractopamine on nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the underlying mechanism. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(1):e85482.
Zhuang, Z., Zhao, Y., Wu, Q., Li, M., Liu, H., Sun, L., Gao, W., & Wang, D. (2014). Adverse effects from clenbuterol and ractopamine on nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the underlying mechanism. PloS One, 9(1), e85482. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085482
Zhuang Z, et al. Adverse Effects From Clenbuterol and Ractopamine On Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans and the Underlying Mechanism. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(1):e85482. PubMed PMID: 24465573.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Adverse effects from clenbuterol and ractopamine on nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the underlying mechanism. AU - Zhuang,Ziheng, AU - Zhao,Yunli, AU - Wu,Qiuli, AU - Li,Min, AU - Liu,Haicui, AU - Sun,Lingmei, AU - Gao,Wei, AU - Wang,Dayong, Y1 - 2014/01/21/ PY - 2013/08/27/received PY - 2013/11/27/accepted PY - 2014/1/28/entrez PY - 2014/1/28/pubmed PY - 2014/10/28/medline SP - e85482 EP - e85482 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 9 IS - 1 N2 - In the present study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans assay system to investigate in vivo toxicity from clentuberol and ractopamine and the possible underlying mechanism. Both acute and prolonged exposures to clentuberol or ractopamine decreased brood size and locomotion behavior, and induced intestinal autofluorescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Although acute exposure to the examined concentrations of clentuberol or ractopamine did not induce lethality, prolonged exposure to 10 µg/L of clentuberol and ractopamine reduced lifespan. At relatively high concentrations, ractopamine exhibited more severe toxicity than clentuberol on nematodes. Overexpression of sod-2 gene encoding a Mn-SOD to prevent induction of oxidative stress effectively inhibited toxicity from clentuberol or ractopamine. Besides oxidative stress, we found that clentuberol might reduce lifespan through influencing insulin/IGF signaling pathway; however, ractopamine might reduce lifespan through affecting both insulin/IGF signaling pathway and TOR signaling pathway. Ractopamine more severely decreased expression levels of daf-16, sgk-1, skn-1, and aak-2 genes than clentuberol, and increased expression levels of daf-2 and age-1 genes at the examined concentration. Therefore, the C. elegans assay system may be useful for assessing the possible toxicity from weight loss agents, and clentuberol and ractopamine may induce toxicity through different molecular mechanisms. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24465573/Adverse_effects_from_clenbuterol_and_ractopamine_on_nematode_Caenorhabditis_elegans_and_the_underlying_mechanism_ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085482 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -