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Mechanisms of cilia-driven transport in the airways in the absence of mucus.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2014 Jul; 51(1):56-67.AJ

Abstract

Airway mucus is thought to be required for the clearance of inhaled particles by mucociliary transport, but this view has recently been challenged. To test if mucus is necessary for cilia-driven particle transport, we removed mucus from murine and human ex vivo airway preparations by thorough rinsing with buffer with or without additional dithiothreitol washing. The transport of particles with diameters of 4.5 μm, 200 nm, and 40 nm and of bacteria was analyzed by video microscopy. Complete removal of mucus was verified by wheat germ agglutinin staining and by scanning electron microscopy. In the absence of mucus, we observed efficient transport of particles and bacteria by direct cilia-mediated propulsion or via fluid flow generated by ciliary beating. Virus-sized particles had the tendency to attach to cilia. Because direct contact of particles with ciliated cells occurs in the absence of mucus, we examined if this direct interaction changes epithelial function. Neither bacteria- nor LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in ciliated cells occurred, indicating that mere contact between ciliated cells and bacteria during transport does not activate the epithelium. Attachment of virus-sized particles to cilia could induce mucus release and/or increase the ciliary beat frequency. Our results indicate that cilia-driven transport of particles with various sizes is possible in murine and human airways without the presence of mucus. If mucus-free transport fails, the epithelium can react by releasing mucus or increasing the ciliary beat frequency to maintain particle transport.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1 Institut für Anatomie, Zentrum für medizinische Struktur- und Zellbiologie, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck, Airway Research Center North (ARCN), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Germany.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24467665

Citation

Bermbach, Saskia, et al. "Mechanisms of Cilia-driven Transport in the Airways in the Absence of Mucus." American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 51, no. 1, 2014, pp. 56-67.
Bermbach S, Weinhold K, Roeder T, et al. Mechanisms of cilia-driven transport in the airways in the absence of mucus. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2014;51(1):56-67.
Bermbach, S., Weinhold, K., Roeder, T., Petersen, F., Kugler, C., Goldmann, T., Rupp, J., & König, P. (2014). Mechanisms of cilia-driven transport in the airways in the absence of mucus. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 51(1), 56-67. https://doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2012-0530OC
Bermbach S, et al. Mechanisms of Cilia-driven Transport in the Airways in the Absence of Mucus. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2014;51(1):56-67. PubMed PMID: 24467665.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Mechanisms of cilia-driven transport in the airways in the absence of mucus. AU - Bermbach,Saskia, AU - Weinhold,Karina, AU - Roeder,Thomas, AU - Petersen,Frank, AU - Kugler,Christian, AU - Goldmann,Torsten, AU - Rupp,Jan, AU - König,Peter, PY - 2014/1/29/entrez PY - 2014/1/29/pubmed PY - 2014/9/12/medline KW - NF-κB signaling KW - airways KW - bacteria KW - cilia-driven particle transport KW - mucociliary clearance SP - 56 EP - 67 JF - American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology JO - Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol VL - 51 IS - 1 N2 - Airway mucus is thought to be required for the clearance of inhaled particles by mucociliary transport, but this view has recently been challenged. To test if mucus is necessary for cilia-driven particle transport, we removed mucus from murine and human ex vivo airway preparations by thorough rinsing with buffer with or without additional dithiothreitol washing. The transport of particles with diameters of 4.5 μm, 200 nm, and 40 nm and of bacteria was analyzed by video microscopy. Complete removal of mucus was verified by wheat germ agglutinin staining and by scanning electron microscopy. In the absence of mucus, we observed efficient transport of particles and bacteria by direct cilia-mediated propulsion or via fluid flow generated by ciliary beating. Virus-sized particles had the tendency to attach to cilia. Because direct contact of particles with ciliated cells occurs in the absence of mucus, we examined if this direct interaction changes epithelial function. Neither bacteria- nor LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in ciliated cells occurred, indicating that mere contact between ciliated cells and bacteria during transport does not activate the epithelium. Attachment of virus-sized particles to cilia could induce mucus release and/or increase the ciliary beat frequency. Our results indicate that cilia-driven transport of particles with various sizes is possible in murine and human airways without the presence of mucus. If mucus-free transport fails, the epithelium can react by releasing mucus or increasing the ciliary beat frequency to maintain particle transport. SN - 1535-4989 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24467665/Mechanisms_of_cilia_driven_transport_in_the_airways_in_the_absence_of_mucus_ L2 - https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/10.1165/rcmb.2012-0530OC?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -