Punicalagin inhibits inflammation in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages via the suppression of TLR4-mediated MAPKs and NF-κB activation.Inflammation. 2014 Jun; 37(3):956-65.I
Punicalagin (2,3,hexahydroxydiphenoyl-gallagyl-D-glucose and referred to as PUN) is a bioactive ellagitannin isolated from pomegranate, which is widely used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), diarrhea, and ulcers in Chinese traditional medicine. In this study, we detected the anti-inflammation potentials of PUN in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages and tried to uncover the underlying mechanism. Results demonstrated that PUN (25, 50, or 100 μM) treatment could significantly decrease the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in RAW264.7 cells. Molecular research showed that PUN inhibited the activation of upstream mediator nuclear factor-κB by suppressing the phosphorylation of IκBα and p65. Results also indicated that PUN could suppress the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase including p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. In conclusion, we observed that PUN could inhibit LPS-induced inflammation, and it may be a potential choice for the treatment of inflammation diseases.