Postnatal diagnosis of 9q interstitial imbalances involving PTCH1, resulting from a familial intrachromosomal insertion.Eur J Med Genet 2014; 57(5):195-9EJ
Insertions are rare chromosomal rearrangements resulting from a three breaks mechanism. The risk of chromosomal imbalance in the offspring is estimated to be 15-50%. We have identified a familial history of direct, paracentric intrachromosomal 9q insertion, balanced in healthy members. For intrachromosomal insertions, unbalanced products in the offspring are always recombinants and in our case, reciprocal deletion and duplication of the inserted segment (9q22.31-9q31.1) were observed. These imbalances involved several genes, including PTCH1. PTCH1 haploinsufficiency causes Gorlin syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder usually linked to the gene mutation but sometimes due to a 9q deletion. Clinical findings are different in 9q deletions and duplications including PTCH1, notably concerning the predisposition to benign and malignant tumors reported in the Gorlin syndrome. Furthermore, some features may be reciprocal. This history of intrachromosomal insertion highlights the importance of morphological cytogenetic analyses to provide an accurate genetic counseling.