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First Clarkforkian equivalent Land Mammal Age in the latest Paleocene basal Sparnacian facies of Europe: fauna, flora, paleoenvironment and (bio)stratigraphy.
PLoS One 2014; 9(1):e86229Plos

Abstract

The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is correlated with the first occurrences of earliest modern mammals in the Northern Hemisphere. The latest Paleocene Clarkforkian North American Land Mammal Age, that has yielded rodents and carnivorans, is the only exception to this rule. However, until now no pre-PETM localities have yielded modern mammals in Europe or Asia. We report the first Clarkforkian equivalent Land Mammal Age in the latest Paleocene deposits of the basal Sparnacian facies at Rivecourt, in the north-central part of the Paris Basin. The new terrestrial vertebrate and macroflora assemblages are analyzed through a multidisciplinary study including sedimentologic, stratigraphic, isotopic, and palynological aspects in order to reconstruct the paleoenvironment and to evaluate biochronologic and paleogeographic implications. The mammals are moderately diverse and not abundant, contrary to turtles and champsosaurs. The macroflora is exceptional in preservation and diversity with numerous angiosperms represented by flowers, fruits, seeds and wood preserved as lignite material, revealing an abundance of Arecaceae, Betulaceae, Icacinaceae, Menispermaceae, Vitaceae and probably Cornaceae. Results indicate a Late Paleocene age based on carbon isotope data, palynology and vertebrate occurrences such as the choristoderan Champsosaurus, the arctocyonid Arctocyon, and the plesiadapid Plesiadapis tricuspidens. However, several mammal species compare better with the earliest Eocene. Among these, the particular louisinid Teilhardimys musculus, also recorded from the latest Paleocene of the Spanish Pyrenees, suggests a younger age than the typical MP6 reference level. Nevertheless, the most important aspect of the Rivecourt fauna is the presence of dental remains of a rodent and a "miacid" carnivoran, attesting to the presence of two modern mammalian orders in the latest Paleocene of Europe. Interestingly, these two groups are also the only modern groups recorded from the latest Paleocene of North America, making Rivecourt the first direct equivalent to the Clarkforkian Land Mammal Age outside of North America.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Direction Opérationnelle Terre et Histoire de la Vie, Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles, Belgium.DGR/GAT, Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (French Geological Survey) et UMR 7327 CNRS-Université d'Orléans-BRGM, Orléans, France.Centre Permanent d'Initiatives pour l'Environnement des Pays de l'Oise, Verberie, France.Centre de recherche sur la paléobiodiversité et les paléoenvironnements (UMR7207 CNRS-MNHN-UPMC), Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle et Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.Centre de recherche sur la paléobiodiversité et les paléoenvironnements (UMR7207 CNRS-MNHN-UPMC), Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle et Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.Direction Opérationnelle Terre et Histoire de la Vie, Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles, Belgium.Direction Opérationnelle Terre et Histoire de la Vie, Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles, Belgium.Direction Opérationnelle Terre et Histoire de la Vie, Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles, Belgium.Centre de recherche sur la paléobiodiversité et les paléoenvironnements (UMR7207 CNRS-MNHN-UPMC), Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle et Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.Institut des Sciences de l'Évolution de Montpellier, Université de Montpellier 2, Montpellier, France.Géologie GFA, Faculté Polytechnique, Université de Mons, Mons, Belgium.Institut Polytechnique LaSalle-Beauvais, Beauvais, France.Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.Lafarge Granulats Seine Nord, Paris, France.Centre Permanent d'Initiatives pour l'Environnement des Pays de l'Oise, Verberie, France.Département de Géologie, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium.Département de Géologie, Université de Namur, Namur, Belgium.Centre de recherche sur la paléobiodiversité et les paléoenvironnements (UMR7207 CNRS-MNHN-UPMC), Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle et Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.Palaeontological Research and Education Centre, Mahasarakham University, Kantarawichai, Thailand.Département de Géologie, Université de Namur, Namur, Belgium.CNRS (UMR 8538), Laboratoire de Géologie, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris, France.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24489703

Citation

Smith, Thierry, et al. "First Clarkforkian Equivalent Land Mammal Age in the Latest Paleocene Basal Sparnacian Facies of Europe: Fauna, Flora, Paleoenvironment and (bio)stratigraphy." PloS One, vol. 9, no. 1, 2014, pp. e86229.
Smith T, Quesnel F, De Plöeg G, et al. First Clarkforkian equivalent Land Mammal Age in the latest Paleocene basal Sparnacian facies of Europe: fauna, flora, paleoenvironment and (bio)stratigraphy. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(1):e86229.
Smith, T., Quesnel, F., De Plöeg, G., De Franceschi, D., Métais, G., De Bast, E., ... Buffetaut, E. (2014). First Clarkforkian equivalent Land Mammal Age in the latest Paleocene basal Sparnacian facies of Europe: fauna, flora, paleoenvironment and (bio)stratigraphy. PloS One, 9(1), pp. e86229. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086229.
Smith T, et al. First Clarkforkian Equivalent Land Mammal Age in the Latest Paleocene Basal Sparnacian Facies of Europe: Fauna, Flora, Paleoenvironment and (bio)stratigraphy. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(1):e86229. PubMed PMID: 24489703.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - First Clarkforkian equivalent Land Mammal Age in the latest Paleocene basal Sparnacian facies of Europe: fauna, flora, paleoenvironment and (bio)stratigraphy. AU - Smith,Thierry, AU - Quesnel,Florence, AU - De Plöeg,Gaël, AU - De Franceschi,Dario, AU - Métais,Grégoire, AU - De Bast,Eric, AU - Solé,Floréal, AU - Folie,Annelise, AU - Boura,Anaïs, AU - Claude,Julien, AU - Dupuis,Christian, AU - Gagnaison,Cyril, AU - Iakovleva,Alina, AU - Martin,Jeremy, AU - Maubert,François, AU - Prieur,Judicaël, AU - Roche,Emile, AU - Storme,Jean-Yves, AU - Thomas,Romain, AU - Tong,Haiyan, AU - Yans,Johan, AU - Buffetaut,Eric, Y1 - 2014/01/29/ PY - 2013/06/25/received PY - 2013/12/07/accepted PY - 2014/2/4/entrez PY - 2014/2/4/pubmed PY - 2014/9/30/medline SP - e86229 EP - e86229 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 9 IS - 1 N2 - The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is correlated with the first occurrences of earliest modern mammals in the Northern Hemisphere. The latest Paleocene Clarkforkian North American Land Mammal Age, that has yielded rodents and carnivorans, is the only exception to this rule. However, until now no pre-PETM localities have yielded modern mammals in Europe or Asia. We report the first Clarkforkian equivalent Land Mammal Age in the latest Paleocene deposits of the basal Sparnacian facies at Rivecourt, in the north-central part of the Paris Basin. The new terrestrial vertebrate and macroflora assemblages are analyzed through a multidisciplinary study including sedimentologic, stratigraphic, isotopic, and palynological aspects in order to reconstruct the paleoenvironment and to evaluate biochronologic and paleogeographic implications. The mammals are moderately diverse and not abundant, contrary to turtles and champsosaurs. The macroflora is exceptional in preservation and diversity with numerous angiosperms represented by flowers, fruits, seeds and wood preserved as lignite material, revealing an abundance of Arecaceae, Betulaceae, Icacinaceae, Menispermaceae, Vitaceae and probably Cornaceae. Results indicate a Late Paleocene age based on carbon isotope data, palynology and vertebrate occurrences such as the choristoderan Champsosaurus, the arctocyonid Arctocyon, and the plesiadapid Plesiadapis tricuspidens. However, several mammal species compare better with the earliest Eocene. Among these, the particular louisinid Teilhardimys musculus, also recorded from the latest Paleocene of the Spanish Pyrenees, suggests a younger age than the typical MP6 reference level. Nevertheless, the most important aspect of the Rivecourt fauna is the presence of dental remains of a rodent and a "miacid" carnivoran, attesting to the presence of two modern mammalian orders in the latest Paleocene of Europe. Interestingly, these two groups are also the only modern groups recorded from the latest Paleocene of North America, making Rivecourt the first direct equivalent to the Clarkforkian Land Mammal Age outside of North America. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24489703/First_Clarkforkian_equivalent_Land_Mammal_Age_in_the_latest_Paleocene_basal_Sparnacian_facies_of_Europe:_fauna,_flora,_paleoenvironment_and_(bio)stratigraphy L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086229 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -