[Analysis of the effects of gestational diabetes mellitus based on abnormal blood glucose on pregnancy outcomes].Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 2013; 48(12):899-902ZF
To investigate the relationship of different types of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pregnancy outcomes.
A total of 4090 cases, who received prenatal examination and delivered in Peking University First Hospital and performed a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (75 g OGTT) at 24-28 gestational weeks, from January. 1(st), 2011 to Jul 31(st), 2012 , were divided into 2 groups. Normal blood glucose group:the result of OGTT (fasting plasma glucose, 1 hour glucose and 2 hour glucose) was normal; Gestational diabetes mellitus group (GDM group): the result of OGTT was abnormal at any time point. GDM group were separated into A, B and C. GDM A means fasting plasma glucose annormal but others were normal, GDM B:fasting plasma glucose, 1 hour and/or 2 hour glucose abnormal, GDM C:fasting plasma glucose normal. To analyse the effect of different number of abnormal result of OGTT on pregnancy outcomes, GDM group were divided into I, II and III.GDMI means one abnormal blood glucose of OGTT result, GDM II: two abnormal blood glucose and GDM III:three abnormal blood glucose. We analyzed the pregnant outcomes of each group.
(1) Among the 4090 cases, 858 cases (21.98%) were diagnosed as GDM (GDM group), and 82 cases (9.6%, 82/858) were treated with insulin.other 3232 cases with normal blood glucose (normal blood glucose group). In GDM group, the rate of cesarean section (51.9%, 445/858), premature delivery (8.4%, 72/858) and LGA (5.9%, 51/858) were respectively significantly higher than those of normal blood glucose group [ (43.5%, 1406/3232), (5.8%, 189/3232) and(4.2%, 137/3232)] (P < 0.05). But, there was no statistically significant differences for the rate of macrosomia (P > 0.05) between the GDM group(6.8%, 58/858) and normal blood glucose group (6.2%, 199/3232) . (2) In the GDM group, GDM A was 317 cases (36.9%), GDM B 239 cases (27.8%), GDM C 302 cases (35.2%). The incidence of Macrosomia and LGA in GDM B was significantly higher than that in GDM C and normal blood glucose group (P < 0.05). Comparing with GDM A , there was no statistically significance in GDM B and GDM C (P > 0.05). (3) In GDM group, GDMIwas 521 cases (60.7%), GDM II203 cases (15.6%), GDM III 134 cases (23.7%). Compared with the normal blood glucose group, GDM III had a significantly higher incidence of macrosomia and LGA and cesarean section(P < 0.01);and GDM IIhad only a significantly higher incidence of cesarean section(P < 0.01). (4) Among the 4090 cases, there were 1118 patients (27.3%) whose fasting blood glucose was below 4.4 mmol/L, of which 55 cases were diagnosed as GDM. There were 4 premature infants and 1 macrosomia.
The GDM group with more than FBG ≥ 5.1 mmol/L had a higher incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes, it suggested that we should pay more attention and take actively intervented; the pregnant woman is not recommended for 75g OGTT detection when fasting blood glucose was below 4.4 mmol/L because of the low rate of GDM and adverse pregnancy outcomes among them.