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Dispersed crude oil amplifies germ cell apoptosis in Caenorhabditis elegans, followed a CEP-1-dependent pathway.
Arch Toxicol. 2014 Mar; 88(3):543-51.AT

Abstract

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is among the most severe environmental disasters in US history. The extent of crude oil released and the subsequent dispersant used for cleanup was unprecedented. The dispersed crude oil represents a unique form of environmental contaminant that warrants investigations of its environmental and human health impacts. Lines of evidence have demonstrated that dispersed oil affects reproduction in various organisms, in a more potent manner than oil- and dispersant-only exposures. However, the action mechanism of dispersed oil remains largely unknown. In this study, we utilized the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate impacts of dispersed oil exposure on sex cell apoptosis and related gene expressions. Worms were exposed to different diluted levels of crude oil-dispersant (oil-dis) mixtures (20:1, v/v; at 500×, 2,000×, and 5,000× dilutions). The dispersed crude oil significantly increases the number of apoptotic germ cells in treated worms when compared with control at all exposure levels (p < 0.05). Genes involved in the apoptosis pathway were dysregulated, which include ced-13, ced-3, ced-4, ced-9, cep-1, dpl-1, efl-1, efl-2, egl-1, egl-38, lin-35, pax-2, and sir-2.1. Many aberrant expressed genes encoding for core components in apoptosis machinery (cep-1/p53, ced-13/BH3, ced-9/Bcl-2, ced-4/Apaf-1, and ced-3/caspase) displayed consistent expression patterns across all exposure levels. Significantly ced-3/caspase was upregulated at all dispersed oil-treated groups, consistent with the observed apoptosis phenotype. Given cep-1/p53 was activated at all dispersed oil treatments and the germ cell apoptosis was suppressed in the CEP-1 loss of function mutant, the increased apoptosis is likely CEP-1 dependent. In addition, the anti-apoptotic ced-9/Bcl-2 was activated in response to the increase in cell death. This study provides a mechanism understanding of dispersed crude oil-induced reproductive toxicity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biology, East Carolina University, N108 Howell Science Complex, Greenville, NC, 27858, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24496467

Citation

Polli, Joseph Ryan, et al. "Dispersed Crude Oil Amplifies Germ Cell Apoptosis in Caenorhabditis Elegans, Followed a CEP-1-dependent Pathway." Archives of Toxicology, vol. 88, no. 3, 2014, pp. 543-51.
Polli JR, Zhang Y, Pan X. Dispersed crude oil amplifies germ cell apoptosis in Caenorhabditis elegans, followed a CEP-1-dependent pathway. Arch Toxicol. 2014;88(3):543-51.
Polli, J. R., Zhang, Y., & Pan, X. (2014). Dispersed crude oil amplifies germ cell apoptosis in Caenorhabditis elegans, followed a CEP-1-dependent pathway. Archives of Toxicology, 88(3), 543-51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-014-1198-6
Polli JR, Zhang Y, Pan X. Dispersed Crude Oil Amplifies Germ Cell Apoptosis in Caenorhabditis Elegans, Followed a CEP-1-dependent Pathway. Arch Toxicol. 2014;88(3):543-51. PubMed PMID: 24496467.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dispersed crude oil amplifies germ cell apoptosis in Caenorhabditis elegans, followed a CEP-1-dependent pathway. AU - Polli,Joseph Ryan, AU - Zhang,Yanqiong, AU - Pan,Xiaoping, Y1 - 2014/02/05/ PY - 2013/12/02/received PY - 2014/01/14/accepted PY - 2014/2/6/entrez PY - 2014/2/6/pubmed PY - 2015/5/13/medline SP - 543 EP - 51 JF - Archives of toxicology JO - Arch Toxicol VL - 88 IS - 3 N2 - The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is among the most severe environmental disasters in US history. The extent of crude oil released and the subsequent dispersant used for cleanup was unprecedented. The dispersed crude oil represents a unique form of environmental contaminant that warrants investigations of its environmental and human health impacts. Lines of evidence have demonstrated that dispersed oil affects reproduction in various organisms, in a more potent manner than oil- and dispersant-only exposures. However, the action mechanism of dispersed oil remains largely unknown. In this study, we utilized the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate impacts of dispersed oil exposure on sex cell apoptosis and related gene expressions. Worms were exposed to different diluted levels of crude oil-dispersant (oil-dis) mixtures (20:1, v/v; at 500×, 2,000×, and 5,000× dilutions). The dispersed crude oil significantly increases the number of apoptotic germ cells in treated worms when compared with control at all exposure levels (p < 0.05). Genes involved in the apoptosis pathway were dysregulated, which include ced-13, ced-3, ced-4, ced-9, cep-1, dpl-1, efl-1, efl-2, egl-1, egl-38, lin-35, pax-2, and sir-2.1. Many aberrant expressed genes encoding for core components in apoptosis machinery (cep-1/p53, ced-13/BH3, ced-9/Bcl-2, ced-4/Apaf-1, and ced-3/caspase) displayed consistent expression patterns across all exposure levels. Significantly ced-3/caspase was upregulated at all dispersed oil-treated groups, consistent with the observed apoptosis phenotype. Given cep-1/p53 was activated at all dispersed oil treatments and the germ cell apoptosis was suppressed in the CEP-1 loss of function mutant, the increased apoptosis is likely CEP-1 dependent. In addition, the anti-apoptotic ced-9/Bcl-2 was activated in response to the increase in cell death. This study provides a mechanism understanding of dispersed crude oil-induced reproductive toxicity. SN - 1432-0738 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24496467/Dispersed_crude_oil_amplifies_germ_cell_apoptosis_in_Caenorhabditis_elegans_followed_a_CEP_1_dependent_pathway_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -