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ALAD genotypes and blood lead levels of neonates and children from e-waste exposure in Guiyu, China.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014 May; 21(10):6744-50.ES

Abstract

Extensive e-waste recycling activity in Guiyu, China, has been conducted using primitive techniques for the last 20 years, resulting in serious heavy metal environmental contamination. A polymorphic variant of the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) gene has been found to influence lead uptake and, thus, may influence an individual's susceptibility to lead toxicity. We therefore explored whether the ALAD gene polymorphism affects blood lead levels of newborns and children in Guiyu. A total of 273 newborns and 504 children, and a combination of 2004/2005 and 2006 independent recruitments were used for this study. Umbilical cord blood from newborns (Guiyu/exposed group 189 vs. Chaonan/reference group 84) and venous blood from children (exposed group, 319 vs. Chendian/reference group 185) were collected. Blood lead levels (BLLs) were measured via graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) for all samples, while ALAD genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP for 273 neonate cord blood and 246 children's blood. The median BBLs of neonates in exposed group vs. the reference group were 10.50 (2.36-40.78) vs. 7.79 (0.8-19.51) for 2004/2005 and 9.41 (9.28-47.60) vs. 5.49 (0.35-18.68) for 2006, while child mean BLLs were 15.31 ± 5.79 vs. 9.94 ± 4.05 for 2004/2005 and 13.17 ± 5.98 vs. 10.04 ± 4.85 for 2006. The genotype frequencies in newborns were 98.90 % for the ALAD-1/ALAD-1 homozygote and 1.10% for the ALAD-1/ALAD-2 heterozygotes, while the values were 95.93 and 4.07%, respectively, in children. The allele frequencies of the ALAD-1 and ALAD-2 were 99.45 and 0.55% for newborns, but 97.97 and 2.03% for children, respectively. No significant differences in blood lead levels were found between ALAD-1/ALAD-1 and ALAD-1/ALAD-2 either in newborns or in children. The frequency distribution of the ALAD-2 allele in newborns from the exposed group was lower than that of the reference group. There were no significant differences, between the two different ALAD genotypes in the lead load of newborns and children. The frequency distribution of ALAD gene does not influence the blood lead levels of newborns and children in this case, which means that the higher lead burden in the exposed children was possibly influenced by e-waste recycling, but not ALAD genotypes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Immunopathology, Shantou University Medical College, 22 Xinling Rd., Shantou, 515041, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24522397

Citation

Huo, Xia, et al. "ALAD Genotypes and Blood Lead Levels of Neonates and Children From E-waste Exposure in Guiyu, China." Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, vol. 21, no. 10, 2014, pp. 6744-50.
Huo X, Peng L, Qiu B, et al. ALAD genotypes and blood lead levels of neonates and children from e-waste exposure in Guiyu, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014;21(10):6744-50.
Huo, X., Peng, L., Qiu, B., Zheng, L., Yekeen, T. A., & Xu, X. (2014). ALAD genotypes and blood lead levels of neonates and children from e-waste exposure in Guiyu, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 21(10), 6744-50. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2596-2
Huo X, et al. ALAD Genotypes and Blood Lead Levels of Neonates and Children From E-waste Exposure in Guiyu, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014;21(10):6744-50. PubMed PMID: 24522397.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - ALAD genotypes and blood lead levels of neonates and children from e-waste exposure in Guiyu, China. AU - Huo,Xia, AU - Peng,Lin, AU - Qiu,Bo, AU - Zheng,Liangkai, AU - Yekeen,Taofeek Akangbe, AU - Xu,Xijin, Y1 - 2014/02/14/ PY - 2013/11/24/received PY - 2014/01/23/accepted PY - 2014/2/14/entrez PY - 2014/2/14/pubmed PY - 2015/1/24/medline SP - 6744 EP - 50 JF - Environmental science and pollution research international JO - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int VL - 21 IS - 10 N2 - Extensive e-waste recycling activity in Guiyu, China, has been conducted using primitive techniques for the last 20 years, resulting in serious heavy metal environmental contamination. A polymorphic variant of the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) gene has been found to influence lead uptake and, thus, may influence an individual's susceptibility to lead toxicity. We therefore explored whether the ALAD gene polymorphism affects blood lead levels of newborns and children in Guiyu. A total of 273 newborns and 504 children, and a combination of 2004/2005 and 2006 independent recruitments were used for this study. Umbilical cord blood from newborns (Guiyu/exposed group 189 vs. Chaonan/reference group 84) and venous blood from children (exposed group, 319 vs. Chendian/reference group 185) were collected. Blood lead levels (BLLs) were measured via graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) for all samples, while ALAD genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP for 273 neonate cord blood and 246 children's blood. The median BBLs of neonates in exposed group vs. the reference group were 10.50 (2.36-40.78) vs. 7.79 (0.8-19.51) for 2004/2005 and 9.41 (9.28-47.60) vs. 5.49 (0.35-18.68) for 2006, while child mean BLLs were 15.31 ± 5.79 vs. 9.94 ± 4.05 for 2004/2005 and 13.17 ± 5.98 vs. 10.04 ± 4.85 for 2006. The genotype frequencies in newborns were 98.90 % for the ALAD-1/ALAD-1 homozygote and 1.10% for the ALAD-1/ALAD-2 heterozygotes, while the values were 95.93 and 4.07%, respectively, in children. The allele frequencies of the ALAD-1 and ALAD-2 were 99.45 and 0.55% for newborns, but 97.97 and 2.03% for children, respectively. No significant differences in blood lead levels were found between ALAD-1/ALAD-1 and ALAD-1/ALAD-2 either in newborns or in children. The frequency distribution of the ALAD-2 allele in newborns from the exposed group was lower than that of the reference group. There were no significant differences, between the two different ALAD genotypes in the lead load of newborns and children. The frequency distribution of ALAD gene does not influence the blood lead levels of newborns and children in this case, which means that the higher lead burden in the exposed children was possibly influenced by e-waste recycling, but not ALAD genotypes. SN - 1614-7499 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24522397/ALAD_genotypes_and_blood_lead_levels_of_neonates_and_children_from_e_waste_exposure_in_Guiyu_China_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2596-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -