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High long-chain n-3 fatty acid intake attenuates the effect of high resting heart rate on cardiovascular mortality risk: a 24-year follow-up of Japanese general population.
J Cardiol. 2014 Sep; 64(3):218-24.JC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Increased resting heart rate (RHR) independently predicts cardiovascular mortality. Meanwhile, long-chain n-3 fatty acids (LCn3FAs) have a cardioprotective effect. Our aim was to evaluate whether higher LCn3FAs intake attenuates the elevated risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with increased RHR.

METHODS

We conducted a population-based 24-year prospective cohort study of Japanese, whose LCn3FAs intake is relatively high. Study participants included 8807 individuals aged 30-95 years from randomly selected areas across Japan without cardiovascular diseases and anti-hypertensive drugs at baseline. The primary endpoint was cardiovascular mortality, and the secondary endpoints were cardiac and stroke mortality during 24 years of follow-up. Individual dietary LCn3FAs intake was estimated from household-based 3-day weighed food records. RHR was obtained from 3 consecutive R-wave intervals on 12-lead electrocardiography. Cox models were used to estimate the multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusting for possible confounders.

RESULTS

During the follow-up period, 617 cardiovascular deaths were observed. The median daily intake of LCn3FAs was 0.37% kcal (0.86g/day). The interaction between dietary LCn3FAs intake and RHR in the risk of cardiovascular mortality was statistically significant (p=0.033). The risk of cardiovascular mortality was significantly higher in the low-intake group (<0.37%kcal) with an RHR >85beats/min (bpm) [hazard ratio (HR), 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-2.43], but not in the high-intake group (≥0.37%kcal) with an RHR >85bpm (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.61-1.38), compared with those in the high-intake group with an RHR <70bpm. Similar results were observed with stroke mortality, but not with cardiac mortality.

CONCLUSIONS

The risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with increased RHR is elevated in participants with low dietary LCn3FAs intake, but not in participants with high dietary LCn3FAs intake in a representative Japanese general population. These results suggest that high dietary LCn3FAs intake may prevent cardiovascular mortality associated with increased RHR.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for Epidemiologic Research in Asia, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan; Department of Health Science, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan; Department of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan. Electronic address: hisataka@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp.Center for Epidemiologic Research in Asia, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan; Department of Health Science, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.Department of Health Science, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan; Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.Department of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.Department of Health Science, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.Department of Health Science, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.Department of School Nursing and Health Education, Osaka Kyoiku University, Osaka, Japan.Department of Health Science, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.Section of Shokuiku, Department of Nutritional Education, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan.Department of Health Science, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.Center for Epidemiologic Research in Asia, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan; Department of Medical Statistics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Kyoto Women's University, Kyoto, Japan.Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan.Department of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.First Institute for Health Promotion and Health Care, Tokyo, Japan.Center for Epidemiologic Research in Asia, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan; Department of Health Science, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24529505

Citation

Hisamatsu, Takashi, et al. "High Long-chain N-3 Fatty Acid Intake Attenuates the Effect of High Resting Heart Rate On Cardiovascular Mortality Risk: a 24-year Follow-up of Japanese General Population." Journal of Cardiology, vol. 64, no. 3, 2014, pp. 218-24.
Hisamatsu T, Miura K, Ohkubo T, et al. High long-chain n-3 fatty acid intake attenuates the effect of high resting heart rate on cardiovascular mortality risk: a 24-year follow-up of Japanese general population. J Cardiol. 2014;64(3):218-24.
Hisamatsu, T., Miura, K., Ohkubo, T., Yamamoto, T., Fujiyoshi, A., Miyagawa, N., Kadota, A., Takashima, N., Okuda, N., Yoshita, K., Kita, Y., Murakami, Y., Nakamura, Y., Okamura, T., Horie, M., Okayama, A., & Ueshima, H. (2014). High long-chain n-3 fatty acid intake attenuates the effect of high resting heart rate on cardiovascular mortality risk: a 24-year follow-up of Japanese general population. Journal of Cardiology, 64(3), 218-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2014.01.005
Hisamatsu T, et al. High Long-chain N-3 Fatty Acid Intake Attenuates the Effect of High Resting Heart Rate On Cardiovascular Mortality Risk: a 24-year Follow-up of Japanese General Population. J Cardiol. 2014;64(3):218-24. PubMed PMID: 24529505.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - High long-chain n-3 fatty acid intake attenuates the effect of high resting heart rate on cardiovascular mortality risk: a 24-year follow-up of Japanese general population. AU - Hisamatsu,Takashi, AU - Miura,Katsuyuki, AU - Ohkubo,Takayoshi, AU - Yamamoto,Takashi, AU - Fujiyoshi,Akira, AU - Miyagawa,Naoko, AU - Kadota,Aya, AU - Takashima,Naoyuki, AU - Okuda,Nagako, AU - Yoshita,Katsushi, AU - Kita,Yoshikuni, AU - Murakami,Yoshitaka, AU - Nakamura,Yasuyuki, AU - Okamura,Tomonori, AU - Horie,Minoru, AU - Okayama,Akira, AU - Ueshima,Hirotsugu, AU - ,, Y1 - 2014/02/11/ PY - 2013/09/12/received PY - 2013/12/24/revised PY - 2014/01/06/accepted PY - 2014/2/18/entrez PY - 2014/2/18/pubmed PY - 2015/4/17/medline KW - Cardiovascular disease KW - Electrocardiography KW - Fatty acids KW - Heart rate KW - Prevention SP - 218 EP - 24 JF - Journal of cardiology JO - J Cardiol VL - 64 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Increased resting heart rate (RHR) independently predicts cardiovascular mortality. Meanwhile, long-chain n-3 fatty acids (LCn3FAs) have a cardioprotective effect. Our aim was to evaluate whether higher LCn3FAs intake attenuates the elevated risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with increased RHR. METHODS: We conducted a population-based 24-year prospective cohort study of Japanese, whose LCn3FAs intake is relatively high. Study participants included 8807 individuals aged 30-95 years from randomly selected areas across Japan without cardiovascular diseases and anti-hypertensive drugs at baseline. The primary endpoint was cardiovascular mortality, and the secondary endpoints were cardiac and stroke mortality during 24 years of follow-up. Individual dietary LCn3FAs intake was estimated from household-based 3-day weighed food records. RHR was obtained from 3 consecutive R-wave intervals on 12-lead electrocardiography. Cox models were used to estimate the multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusting for possible confounders. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 617 cardiovascular deaths were observed. The median daily intake of LCn3FAs was 0.37% kcal (0.86g/day). The interaction between dietary LCn3FAs intake and RHR in the risk of cardiovascular mortality was statistically significant (p=0.033). The risk of cardiovascular mortality was significantly higher in the low-intake group (<0.37%kcal) with an RHR >85beats/min (bpm) [hazard ratio (HR), 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-2.43], but not in the high-intake group (≥0.37%kcal) with an RHR >85bpm (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.61-1.38), compared with those in the high-intake group with an RHR <70bpm. Similar results were observed with stroke mortality, but not with cardiac mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with increased RHR is elevated in participants with low dietary LCn3FAs intake, but not in participants with high dietary LCn3FAs intake in a representative Japanese general population. These results suggest that high dietary LCn3FAs intake may prevent cardiovascular mortality associated with increased RHR. SN - 1876-4738 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24529505/High_long_chain_n_3_fatty_acid_intake_attenuates_the_effect_of_high_resting_heart_rate_on_cardiovascular_mortality_risk:_a_24_year_follow_up_of_Japanese_general_population_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0914-5087(14)00023-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -