Influence of training frequency on serum concentrations of some essential trace elements and electrolytes in male swimmers.Biol Trace Elem Res 2014; 158(1):15-21BT
Elemental fluctuations during physical performances have been a point of interest. This study was designed to investigate the effect of swimming frequency on serum concentrations of some trace elements (chromium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium) and electrolytes (sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium). Three groups of different-level male swimmers were included in the study, as elite swimmers (n = 14), amateur swimmers (n = 11), and sedentary individuals (n = 10). Elite and amateur swimmer groups followed a 3-week training program. At the end of the period, all volunteers were subjected to a controlled swimming test, and blood samples were collected at the beginning of (pre-test), immediately after (post-test), and 1 h after this activity. Element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a dilute and shoot procedure. Apart from the swimming test applied, pre-test calcium and potassium levels were higher in elite swimmers compared to amateurs and controls. The difference in pre-test levels of these elements can be associated with adaptive mechanisms emerged by the frequent training. Regarding the test applied, changes in magnesium, calcium, copper, zinc, and selenium levels exhibited a common pattern in all study groups, with higher post-test serum concentrations. Another point of note was a drop of copper, zinc, and selenium levels at 1 h after the test in elite swimmers. The decrease in serum zinc was also observed in the other groups. Results highlight the value of regular control of elemental status to provide insight into transient effects and deficiencies.