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The global epidemiology and burden of psychostimulant dependence: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 Apr 01; 137:36-47.DA

Abstract

AIMS

To estimate the global prevalence of cocaine and amphetamine dependence and the burden of disease attributable to these disorders.

METHODS

An epidemiological model was developed using DisMod-MR, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, using epidemiological data (prevalence, incidence, remission and mortality) sourced from a multi-stage systematic review of data. Age, sex and region-specific prevalence was estimated for and multiplied by comorbidity-adjusted disability weightings to estimate years of life lost to disability (YLDs) from these disorders. Years of life lost (YLL) were estimated from cross-national vital registry data. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were estimated by summing YLDs and YLLs in 21 regions, by sex and age, in 1990 and 2010.

RESULTS

In 2010, there were an estimated 24.1 million psychostimulant dependent people: 6.9 million cocaine and 17.2 million amphetamines, equating to a point prevalence of 0.10% (0.09-0.11%) for cocaine, and 0.25% (0.22-0.28%) for amphetamines. There were 37.6 amphetamine dependence DALYs (21.3-59.3) per 100,000 population in 2010 and 15.9 per 100,000 (9.3-25.0) cocaine dependence DALYs. There were clear differences between amphetamines and cocaine in the geographic distribution of crude DALYs. Over half of amphetamine dependence DALYs were in Asian regions (52%), whereas almost half of cocaine dependence DALYs were in the Americas (44%, with 23% in North America High Income).

CONCLUSION

Dependence upon psychostimulants is a substantial contributor to global disease burden; the contribution of cocaine and amphetamines to this burden varies dramatically by geographic region. There is a need to scale up evidence-based interventions to reduce this burden.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, 2052, Australia; Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, 3053, Australia. Electronic address: l.degenhardt@unsw.edu.au.Policy and Epidemiology Group, Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, Brisbane 4074, Australia; School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Herston 4006, Australia.Policy and Epidemiology Group, Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, Brisbane 4074, Australia; School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Herston 4006, Australia.University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4006, Australia; National Addiction Centre, Kings College, London, England, United Kingdom.School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Herston 4006, Australia; InforMH, Mental Health and Drug and Alcohol Office, NSW Health, Sydney 2113, Australia; Discipline of Psychiatry, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney 2065, Australia.Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.Policy and Epidemiology Group, Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, Brisbane 4074, Australia; School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Herston 4006, Australia.Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24559607

Citation

Degenhardt, Louisa, et al. "The Global Epidemiology and Burden of Psychostimulant Dependence: Findings From the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010." Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 137, 2014, pp. 36-47.
Degenhardt L, Baxter AJ, Lee YY, et al. The global epidemiology and burden of psychostimulant dependence: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014;137:36-47.
Degenhardt, L., Baxter, A. J., Lee, Y. Y., Hall, W., Sara, G. E., Johns, N., Flaxman, A., Whiteford, H. A., & Vos, T. (2014). The global epidemiology and burden of psychostimulant dependence: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 137, 36-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.12.025
Degenhardt L, et al. The Global Epidemiology and Burden of Psychostimulant Dependence: Findings From the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 Apr 1;137:36-47. PubMed PMID: 24559607.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The global epidemiology and burden of psychostimulant dependence: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. AU - Degenhardt,Louisa, AU - Baxter,Amanda J, AU - Lee,Yong Yi, AU - Hall,Wayne, AU - Sara,Grant E, AU - Johns,Nicole, AU - Flaxman,Abraham, AU - Whiteford,Harvey A, AU - Vos,Theo, Y1 - 2014/01/27/ PY - 2013/10/11/received PY - 2013/12/14/revised PY - 2013/12/31/accepted PY - 2014/2/25/entrez PY - 2014/2/25/pubmed PY - 2014/12/15/medline KW - Amphetamines KW - Burden of disease KW - Cocaine KW - Epidemiology KW - Psychostimulants SP - 36 EP - 47 JF - Drug and alcohol dependence JO - Drug Alcohol Depend VL - 137 N2 - AIMS: To estimate the global prevalence of cocaine and amphetamine dependence and the burden of disease attributable to these disorders. METHODS: An epidemiological model was developed using DisMod-MR, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, using epidemiological data (prevalence, incidence, remission and mortality) sourced from a multi-stage systematic review of data. Age, sex and region-specific prevalence was estimated for and multiplied by comorbidity-adjusted disability weightings to estimate years of life lost to disability (YLDs) from these disorders. Years of life lost (YLL) were estimated from cross-national vital registry data. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were estimated by summing YLDs and YLLs in 21 regions, by sex and age, in 1990 and 2010. RESULTS: In 2010, there were an estimated 24.1 million psychostimulant dependent people: 6.9 million cocaine and 17.2 million amphetamines, equating to a point prevalence of 0.10% (0.09-0.11%) for cocaine, and 0.25% (0.22-0.28%) for amphetamines. There were 37.6 amphetamine dependence DALYs (21.3-59.3) per 100,000 population in 2010 and 15.9 per 100,000 (9.3-25.0) cocaine dependence DALYs. There were clear differences between amphetamines and cocaine in the geographic distribution of crude DALYs. Over half of amphetamine dependence DALYs were in Asian regions (52%), whereas almost half of cocaine dependence DALYs were in the Americas (44%, with 23% in North America High Income). CONCLUSION: Dependence upon psychostimulants is a substantial contributor to global disease burden; the contribution of cocaine and amphetamines to this burden varies dramatically by geographic region. There is a need to scale up evidence-based interventions to reduce this burden. SN - 1879-0046 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24559607/The_global_epidemiology_and_burden_of_psychostimulant_dependence:_findings_from_the_Global_Burden_of_Disease_Study_2010_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0376-8716(14)00023-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -