Subcellular localization and responses of superoxide dismutase isoforms in local wheat varieties subjected to continuous soil drought.Plant Physiol Biochem. 2014 Aug; 81:54-60.PP
Water is a key factor influencing the yield and quality of crops. One of the parameters of plant biological tolerance to constantly changing environmental conditions is the change of activities and numerous molecular forms of antioxidant enzymes. Two durum (Triticum durum Desf.) wheat varieties contrasting for drought tolerance, such as Barakatli-95 (drought tolerant) and Garagylchyg-2 (drought sensitive) were grown over a wide area in the field. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of soil drought on changes in activities and subcellular localization of superoxide dismutase isoforms. The levels of malondialdehyde, glycine betaine and total proteins were also analyzed. The level of the enzyme activity appeared to depend on the wheat varieties, duration of drought and stages of leaf development. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) revealed the presence of 9 isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase in wheat leaves during drought. Mn-SOD was found in the mitochondrial fractions, Fe-SOD in the chloroplast fraction and Cu/Zn-SOD is localized in all subcellular fractions. Wheat leaves contain three different isoforms of SOD (Mn-, Fe-, Cu/Zn-SOD). Three isoforms of Mn-SOD, one isoform of Fe-SOD and five of Cu/Zn-SOD were observed in wheat leaves using 3 mM KCN and 5 mM H2O2 as selective inhibitors. The expression of Mn-SOD was preferentially enhanced by drought stress. It seems that Mn-SOD isoforms more than SOD ones play a major role in the scavenging of superoxide radicals. The observed data showed that status of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD could provide a meaningful tool for depicting drought tolerance of wheat genotype.