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Phase I and II cannabinoid disposition in blood and plasma of occasional and frequent smokers following controlled smoked cannabis.
Clin Chem. 2014 Apr; 60(4):631-43.CC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) have been reported in blood from frequent cannabis smokers for an extended time during abstinence. We compared THC, 11-OH-THC, THCCOOH, cannabidiol, cannabinol, THC-glucuronide, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC-glucuronide (THCCOO-glucuronide) blood and plasma disposition in frequent and occasional cannabis smokers.

METHODS

Frequent and occasional smokers resided on a closed research unit and smoked one 6.8% THC cannabis cigarette ad libitum. Blood and plasma cannabinoids were quantified on admission (approximately 19 h before), 1 h before, and up to 15 times (0.5-30 h) after smoking.

RESULTS

Cannabinoid blood and plasma concentrations were significantly higher in frequent smokers compared with occasional smokers at most time points for THC and 11-OH-THC and at all time points for THCCOOH and THCCOO-glucuronide. Cannabidiol, cannabinol, and THC-glucuronide were not significantly different at any time point. Overall blood and plasma cannabinoid concentrations were significantly higher in frequent smokers for THC, 11-OH-THC, THCCOOH, and THCCOO-glucuronide, with and without accounting for baseline concentrations. For blood THC >5 μg/L, median (range) time of last detection was 3.5 h (1.1->30 h) in frequent smokers and 1.0 h (0-2.1 h) in 11 occasional smokers; 2 individuals had no samples with THC >5 μg/L.

CONCLUSIONS

Cannabis smoking history plays a major role in cannabinoid detection. These differences may impact clinical and impaired driving drug detection. The presence of cannabidiol, cannabinol, or THC-glucuronide indicates recent use, but their absence does not exclude it.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutic Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD;No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24563491

Citation

Desrosiers, Nathalie A., et al. "Phase I and II Cannabinoid Disposition in Blood and Plasma of Occasional and Frequent Smokers Following Controlled Smoked Cannabis." Clinical Chemistry, vol. 60, no. 4, 2014, pp. 631-43.
Desrosiers NA, Himes SK, Scheidweiler KB, et al. Phase I and II cannabinoid disposition in blood and plasma of occasional and frequent smokers following controlled smoked cannabis. Clin Chem. 2014;60(4):631-43.
Desrosiers, N. A., Himes, S. K., Scheidweiler, K. B., Concheiro-Guisan, M., Gorelick, D. A., & Huestis, M. A. (2014). Phase I and II cannabinoid disposition in blood and plasma of occasional and frequent smokers following controlled smoked cannabis. Clinical Chemistry, 60(4), 631-43. https://doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2013.216507
Desrosiers NA, et al. Phase I and II Cannabinoid Disposition in Blood and Plasma of Occasional and Frequent Smokers Following Controlled Smoked Cannabis. Clin Chem. 2014;60(4):631-43. PubMed PMID: 24563491.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Phase I and II cannabinoid disposition in blood and plasma of occasional and frequent smokers following controlled smoked cannabis. AU - Desrosiers,Nathalie A, AU - Himes,Sarah K, AU - Scheidweiler,Karl B, AU - Concheiro-Guisan,Marta, AU - Gorelick,David A, AU - Huestis,Marilyn A, Y1 - 2014/02/21/ PY - 2014/2/25/entrez PY - 2014/2/25/pubmed PY - 2014/6/6/medline SP - 631 EP - 43 JF - Clinical chemistry JO - Clin Chem VL - 60 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) have been reported in blood from frequent cannabis smokers for an extended time during abstinence. We compared THC, 11-OH-THC, THCCOOH, cannabidiol, cannabinol, THC-glucuronide, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC-glucuronide (THCCOO-glucuronide) blood and plasma disposition in frequent and occasional cannabis smokers. METHODS: Frequent and occasional smokers resided on a closed research unit and smoked one 6.8% THC cannabis cigarette ad libitum. Blood and plasma cannabinoids were quantified on admission (approximately 19 h before), 1 h before, and up to 15 times (0.5-30 h) after smoking. RESULTS: Cannabinoid blood and plasma concentrations were significantly higher in frequent smokers compared with occasional smokers at most time points for THC and 11-OH-THC and at all time points for THCCOOH and THCCOO-glucuronide. Cannabidiol, cannabinol, and THC-glucuronide were not significantly different at any time point. Overall blood and plasma cannabinoid concentrations were significantly higher in frequent smokers for THC, 11-OH-THC, THCCOOH, and THCCOO-glucuronide, with and without accounting for baseline concentrations. For blood THC >5 μg/L, median (range) time of last detection was 3.5 h (1.1->30 h) in frequent smokers and 1.0 h (0-2.1 h) in 11 occasional smokers; 2 individuals had no samples with THC >5 μg/L. CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis smoking history plays a major role in cannabinoid detection. These differences may impact clinical and impaired driving drug detection. The presence of cannabidiol, cannabinol, or THC-glucuronide indicates recent use, but their absence does not exclude it. SN - 1530-8561 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24563491/Phase_I_and_II_cannabinoid_disposition_in_blood_and_plasma_of_occasional_and_frequent_smokers_following_controlled_smoked_cannabis_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/clinchem/article-lookup/doi/10.1373/clinchem.2013.216507 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -