Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES): current management strategies and review of the literature.J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2013 Jul-Aug; 1(4):317-22JA
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity that manifests as profuse, repetitive vomiting, often with diarrhea, leading to acute dehydration and lethargy or weight loss and failure to thrive if chronic. FPIES is elicited most commonly by milk and soy proteins; however, rice, oat, and other solid foods may also elicit FPIES. Certain FPIES features overlap with food protein-induced enteropathy and proctocolitis, whereas others overlap with anaphylaxis. FPIES is not well recognized among pediatricians and emergency department physicians; the affected children are often mismanaged as having acute viral gastrointestinal illness, sepsis, or surgical disease, delaying diagnosis of FPIES for many months. The aim of this review is to provide case-driven presentation of the features of FPIES. Although randomized clinical trials on management options are missing, the relevant current literature and authors' experience are reviewed in detail.