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Acute toxicity study and effect of prolonged administration (28 days) of crude ethanolic root extract of Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst (Ebenaceae) on clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters of albino rats.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Apr 11; 153(1):268-73.JE

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE

Different parts of the plant Diospyros mespiliformis have been used traditionally for the treatment of ailments in Nigeria particularly among the Kamwe people of Michika local government area of Adamawa State where the root has been used as an anti-malarial for ages. Most of the uses have been without any scientific evidence and toxicological assessment. The present study aimed to determine acute toxicity profile as well as the effect of prolonged administration of the extract on clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters of albino rats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Thirty and twenty-five Wistar rats of both sexes and of varying weights were, respectively, used for acute toxicity study and prolonged administration study of crude ethanolic root extract of Diospyros mespiliformis. The rats used for both studies were each administered graded concentrations of the extract (100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600mg/kg) for acute toxicity testing and (50, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg) for the study of the effect of prolonged administration. The rats used for acute toxicity study were observed for a period of 24h for signs of toxicity and eventual death while parameters for prolonged study were recorded at weekly interval starting from day zero up to day 28 post administration.

RESULTS

The extract produced an intraperitoneal LD50 of 570mg/kg. Body weight changes were not statistically significant (p>0.05) while haematological parameters (packed cell volume (PCV)), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and differential leucocyte counts (DLC) were significantly modulated (p>0.05) after administration. Haematological indices (mean corpuscular volume (MCV)), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) were similarly modulated significantly (p>0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

The extract appeared to be moderately toxic while prolonged administration improved the blood parameters of rats, suggesting that the plant׳s extract at lower doses can be used for a prolonged period, without deleterious effect on the haematological profile and serum enzymes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. Electronic address: joshuadiriki@yahoo.com.Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24576408

Citation

Luka, J, et al. "Acute Toxicity Study and Effect of Prolonged Administration (28 Days) of Crude Ethanolic Root Extract of Diospyros Mespiliformis Hochst (Ebenaceae) On Clinical, Haematological and Biochemical Parameters of Albino Rats." Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 153, no. 1, 2014, pp. 268-73.
Luka J, Badau SJ, Mbaya AW, et al. Acute toxicity study and effect of prolonged administration (28 days) of crude ethanolic root extract of Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst (Ebenaceae) on clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters of albino rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;153(1):268-73.
Luka, J., Badau, S. J., Mbaya, A. W., Gadzama, J. J., & Kumshe, H. A. (2014). Acute toxicity study and effect of prolonged administration (28 days) of crude ethanolic root extract of Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst (Ebenaceae) on clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters of albino rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 153(1), 268-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.02.033
Luka J, et al. Acute Toxicity Study and Effect of Prolonged Administration (28 Days) of Crude Ethanolic Root Extract of Diospyros Mespiliformis Hochst (Ebenaceae) On Clinical, Haematological and Biochemical Parameters of Albino Rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Apr 11;153(1):268-73. PubMed PMID: 24576408.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Acute toxicity study and effect of prolonged administration (28 days) of crude ethanolic root extract of Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst (Ebenaceae) on clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters of albino rats. AU - Luka,J, AU - Badau,S J, AU - Mbaya,A W, AU - Gadzama,J J, AU - Kumshe,H A, Y1 - 2014/02/24/ PY - 2013/12/06/received PY - 2014/02/13/revised PY - 2014/02/16/accepted PY - 2014/3/1/entrez PY - 2014/3/1/pubmed PY - 2015/6/2/medline KW - Diospyros mespiliformis KW - Extract KW - Haematological parameters KW - Metabolites KW - Serum enzymes KW - Toxicity SP - 268 EP - 73 JF - Journal of ethnopharmacology JO - J Ethnopharmacol VL - 153 IS - 1 N2 - ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Different parts of the plant Diospyros mespiliformis have been used traditionally for the treatment of ailments in Nigeria particularly among the Kamwe people of Michika local government area of Adamawa State where the root has been used as an anti-malarial for ages. Most of the uses have been without any scientific evidence and toxicological assessment. The present study aimed to determine acute toxicity profile as well as the effect of prolonged administration of the extract on clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters of albino rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty and twenty-five Wistar rats of both sexes and of varying weights were, respectively, used for acute toxicity study and prolonged administration study of crude ethanolic root extract of Diospyros mespiliformis. The rats used for both studies were each administered graded concentrations of the extract (100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600mg/kg) for acute toxicity testing and (50, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg) for the study of the effect of prolonged administration. The rats used for acute toxicity study were observed for a period of 24h for signs of toxicity and eventual death while parameters for prolonged study were recorded at weekly interval starting from day zero up to day 28 post administration. RESULTS: The extract produced an intraperitoneal LD50 of 570mg/kg. Body weight changes were not statistically significant (p>0.05) while haematological parameters (packed cell volume (PCV)), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and differential leucocyte counts (DLC) were significantly modulated (p>0.05) after administration. Haematological indices (mean corpuscular volume (MCV)), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) were similarly modulated significantly (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The extract appeared to be moderately toxic while prolonged administration improved the blood parameters of rats, suggesting that the plant׳s extract at lower doses can be used for a prolonged period, without deleterious effect on the haematological profile and serum enzymes. SN - 1872-7573 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24576408/Acute_toxicity_study_and_effect_of_prolonged_administration__28_days__of_crude_ethanolic_root_extract_of_Diospyros_mespiliformis_Hochst__Ebenaceae__on_clinical_haematological_and_biochemical_parameters_of_albino_rats_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378-8741(14)00146-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -