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Fibrogenicity and carcinogenic potential of smelter slags used as abrasive blasting substitutes.
J Toxicol Environ Health. 1988; 25(1):35-56.JT

Abstract

This study was designed to examine the fibrogenic and carcinogenic potentials of three smelter slags (primary copper slag, secondary copper slag, and nickel slag) that have been used for a number of years as substitutes for sand in abrasive blasting operations. Seven groups of 85 male Fischer 344 rats (approximately 180 g) were used. Each group was given a single 20-mg dose of one of the following test materials via intratracheal instillation: primary copper slag, secondary copper slag, nickel slag, feldspar, Min-U-Sil, novaculite, or vehicle control. Chemical, particle size, and surface area analyses were performed for each test dust. Animals were weighed monthly, and ten animals per group were necropsied at the 6-, 12-, and 18-mo interim sacrifices. The terminal sacrifice was conducted at 22 mo. Hematoxylin and eosin stained histologic sections were prepared from designated formalin-fixed tissues collected at necropsy and examined microscopically. The pulmonary fibrogenic and carcinogenic potentials of the three smelter slags were compared histopathologically with feldspar, novaculite, Min-U-Sil, and vehicle controls. Only minimal to slight alveolar wall fibrosis was seen in the two copper slag groups, while the response seen with nickel slag was consistent with a foreign body reaction with minimal fibrosis seen in only an occasional animal. The major reaction seen in both the feldspar- and the novaculite-treated rats was a granulomatous inflammation with varying degrees of fibrosis associated with the granulomas. Significant numbers of primary lung tumors, principally adenocarcinomas and adenomas, were seen in the copper slag (p = 0.005 and p = 0.022 for the primary and secondary slags, respectively), in the feldspar (p = 0.007), in the novaculite (p less than 0.001), and in the Min-U-Sil (p less than 0.001) groups when compared to the vehicle control group. In addition, the Min-U-Sil and novaculite groups had significantly elevated pulmonary tumor proportions relative to the other treatments (p less than or equal to 0.002), with the Min-U-Sil being higher than the novaculite (p = 0.012). On the basis of the tumor incidence data, one must conclude that both copper slags tested in this study are carcinogenic to rats.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Biomedical and Behavioral Science, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

2458479

Citation

Stettler, L E., et al. "Fibrogenicity and Carcinogenic Potential of Smelter Slags Used as Abrasive Blasting Substitutes." Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, vol. 25, no. 1, 1988, pp. 35-56.
Stettler LE, Proctor JE, Platek SF, et al. Fibrogenicity and carcinogenic potential of smelter slags used as abrasive blasting substitutes. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1988;25(1):35-56.
Stettler, L. E., Proctor, J. E., Platek, S. F., Carolan, R. J., Smith, R. J., & Donaldson, H. M. (1988). Fibrogenicity and carcinogenic potential of smelter slags used as abrasive blasting substitutes. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 25(1), 35-56.
Stettler LE, et al. Fibrogenicity and Carcinogenic Potential of Smelter Slags Used as Abrasive Blasting Substitutes. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1988;25(1):35-56. PubMed PMID: 2458479.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Fibrogenicity and carcinogenic potential of smelter slags used as abrasive blasting substitutes. AU - Stettler,L E, AU - Proctor,J E, AU - Platek,S F, AU - Carolan,R J, AU - Smith,R J, AU - Donaldson,H M, PY - 1988/1/1/pubmed PY - 1988/1/1/medline PY - 1988/1/1/entrez SP - 35 EP - 56 JF - Journal of toxicology and environmental health JO - J Toxicol Environ Health VL - 25 IS - 1 N2 - This study was designed to examine the fibrogenic and carcinogenic potentials of three smelter slags (primary copper slag, secondary copper slag, and nickel slag) that have been used for a number of years as substitutes for sand in abrasive blasting operations. Seven groups of 85 male Fischer 344 rats (approximately 180 g) were used. Each group was given a single 20-mg dose of one of the following test materials via intratracheal instillation: primary copper slag, secondary copper slag, nickel slag, feldspar, Min-U-Sil, novaculite, or vehicle control. Chemical, particle size, and surface area analyses were performed for each test dust. Animals were weighed monthly, and ten animals per group were necropsied at the 6-, 12-, and 18-mo interim sacrifices. The terminal sacrifice was conducted at 22 mo. Hematoxylin and eosin stained histologic sections were prepared from designated formalin-fixed tissues collected at necropsy and examined microscopically. The pulmonary fibrogenic and carcinogenic potentials of the three smelter slags were compared histopathologically with feldspar, novaculite, Min-U-Sil, and vehicle controls. Only minimal to slight alveolar wall fibrosis was seen in the two copper slag groups, while the response seen with nickel slag was consistent with a foreign body reaction with minimal fibrosis seen in only an occasional animal. The major reaction seen in both the feldspar- and the novaculite-treated rats was a granulomatous inflammation with varying degrees of fibrosis associated with the granulomas. Significant numbers of primary lung tumors, principally adenocarcinomas and adenomas, were seen in the copper slag (p = 0.005 and p = 0.022 for the primary and secondary slags, respectively), in the feldspar (p = 0.007), in the novaculite (p less than 0.001), and in the Min-U-Sil (p less than 0.001) groups when compared to the vehicle control group. In addition, the Min-U-Sil and novaculite groups had significantly elevated pulmonary tumor proportions relative to the other treatments (p less than or equal to 0.002), with the Min-U-Sil being higher than the novaculite (p = 0.012). On the basis of the tumor incidence data, one must conclude that both copper slags tested in this study are carcinogenic to rats. SN - 0098-4108 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/2458479/Fibrogenicity_and_carcinogenic_potential_of_smelter_slags_used_as_abrasive_blasting_substitutes_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/pulmonaryfibrosis.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -