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Diet as a risk factor for pneumococcal carriage and otitis media: a cross-sectional study among children in day care centers.
PLoS One 2014; 9(3):e90585Plos

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Pharyngeal bacteria are exposed to different sugar conditions depending on the diet of the child. We hypothesized that dietary factors such as daily intake of carbohydrates could be associated with pneumococcal carriage and the occurrence of otitis media in children.

METHODS

Our study design was a cross-sectional study among 1006 children attending child day care centers. Parents filled in a food frequency questionnaire. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from each child. The primary outcome was the occurrence of pneumococcal carriage and the secondary outcome the number of acute otitis media episodes during life. Principal component analysis was used to group dietary intake into nine factors. The models were adjusted for age, gender of the child and educational level of the mother.

RESULTS

The dietary factor which included high consumption of sweet pastries and jam was associated with an increased risk of pneumococcal carriage (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.36, P-value 0.04). The factor including frequent consumption of fruit and berries was associated with a decreased risk of acute otitis (regression coefficient -0.51, 95% CI -0.98 to -0.03, P=0.04). A high intake of consumption of sweets and snacks (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.80, P=0.03) was associated with an increased risk of caries.

CONCLUSIONS

Diet was associated with a risk of pneumococcal carriage and the occurrence of otitis media. Diet may thus be a modifiable risk factor for the occurrence of acute otitis media.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pediatrics, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; Department of Pediatrics, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.Department of Pediatrics, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; Department of Pediatrics, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.Department of Pediatrics, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.Department of Pediatrics, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; Department of Pediatrics, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.Department of Pediatrics, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; Department of Pediatrics, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland.Department of Pediatrics, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; Department of Pediatrics, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24599395

Citation

Tapiainen, Terhi, et al. "Diet as a Risk Factor for Pneumococcal Carriage and Otitis Media: a Cross-sectional Study Among Children in Day Care Centers." PloS One, vol. 9, no. 3, 2014, pp. e90585.
Tapiainen T, Paalanne N, Arkkola T, et al. Diet as a risk factor for pneumococcal carriage and otitis media: a cross-sectional study among children in day care centers. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(3):e90585.
Tapiainen, T., Paalanne, N., Arkkola, T., Renko, M., Pokka, T., Kaijalainen, T., & Uhari, M. (2014). Diet as a risk factor for pneumococcal carriage and otitis media: a cross-sectional study among children in day care centers. PloS One, 9(3), pp. e90585. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090585.
Tapiainen T, et al. Diet as a Risk Factor for Pneumococcal Carriage and Otitis Media: a Cross-sectional Study Among Children in Day Care Centers. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(3):e90585. PubMed PMID: 24599395.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Diet as a risk factor for pneumococcal carriage and otitis media: a cross-sectional study among children in day care centers. AU - Tapiainen,Terhi, AU - Paalanne,Niko, AU - Arkkola,Tuula, AU - Renko,Marjo, AU - Pokka,Tytti, AU - Kaijalainen,Tarja, AU - Uhari,Matti, Y1 - 2014/03/05/ PY - 2013/11/01/received PY - 2014/02/03/accepted PY - 2014/3/7/entrez PY - 2014/3/7/pubmed PY - 2015/1/15/medline SP - e90585 EP - e90585 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 9 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Pharyngeal bacteria are exposed to different sugar conditions depending on the diet of the child. We hypothesized that dietary factors such as daily intake of carbohydrates could be associated with pneumococcal carriage and the occurrence of otitis media in children. METHODS: Our study design was a cross-sectional study among 1006 children attending child day care centers. Parents filled in a food frequency questionnaire. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from each child. The primary outcome was the occurrence of pneumococcal carriage and the secondary outcome the number of acute otitis media episodes during life. Principal component analysis was used to group dietary intake into nine factors. The models were adjusted for age, gender of the child and educational level of the mother. RESULTS: The dietary factor which included high consumption of sweet pastries and jam was associated with an increased risk of pneumococcal carriage (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.36, P-value 0.04). The factor including frequent consumption of fruit and berries was associated with a decreased risk of acute otitis (regression coefficient -0.51, 95% CI -0.98 to -0.03, P=0.04). A high intake of consumption of sweets and snacks (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.80, P=0.03) was associated with an increased risk of caries. CONCLUSIONS: Diet was associated with a risk of pneumococcal carriage and the occurrence of otitis media. Diet may thus be a modifiable risk factor for the occurrence of acute otitis media. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24599395/full_citation L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090585 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -