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A high-throughput method based on microwave-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous analysis of amphetamines, ketamine, opiates, and their metabolites in hair.
Anal Bioanal Chem. 2014 Apr; 406(9-10):2445-55.AB

Abstract

A total sample-preparation and analysis time of 50 min is required for the high-throughput method of hair analysis proposed in this paper. The method is applicable to analysis of drugs commonly used in Asia, and their metabolites--methamphetamine (MA), amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), ketamine (K), norketamine (NK), dehydronorketamine (DHNK), 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), morphine (MOR), and codeine (COD). Cut and weighed hair (10 mg) was incubated for 3 min with methanol-trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) during microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) at 700 W. The incubation solution was evaporated, the residue was reconstituted in deionized water-methanol, 99:1 (v/v), and 20 μL was injected on to a core-shell column (50 × 4.6 mm, 2.6 μm particle size) for liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS-MS) analysis. Gradient elution separation was performed in 8 min at a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1). No signal interfering with any of the analytes was found in fourteen blank hair samples from different sources. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.5 pg mg(-1) and 2.0 pg mg(-1), respectively, for MA, AMP, MDMA, MDA, K, NK, and DHNK, and 2.0 pg mg(-1) and 5.0 pg mg(-1), respectively, for 6-AM, MOR and COD. The linear range was between the LOQ and 1000 pg mg(-1), and the correlation coefficients were all greater than 0.999. Investigation of matrix effects revealed that all the analytes were suppressed by less than 20% and the standard deviation (SD) was always less than 7%. Recovery was always greater than 90% and the SD for each compound was less than 6%. Precision and accuracy for each analyte were within 15%. Eight authentic hair specimens from known drug abusers were successfully analyzed. Compared with traditional overnight incubation methods, the rapid 3-min extraction time achieved similar or greater extraction yields. Sample preparation by MAE was a reliable procedure for extraction of the analytes from hair but substantially simpler and faster than other methods.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, 40201, Taiwan.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Evaluation Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24604323

Citation

Chang, Yuan-Jhe, et al. "A High-throughput Method Based On Microwave-assisted Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry for Simultaneous Analysis of Amphetamines, Ketamine, Opiates, and Their Metabolites in Hair." Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 406, no. 9-10, 2014, pp. 2445-55.
Chang YJ, Chao MR, Chen SC, et al. A high-throughput method based on microwave-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous analysis of amphetamines, ketamine, opiates, and their metabolites in hair. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2014;406(9-10):2445-55.
Chang, Y. J., Chao, M. R., Chen, S. C., Chen, C. H., & Chang, Y. Z. (2014). A high-throughput method based on microwave-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous analysis of amphetamines, ketamine, opiates, and their metabolites in hair. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 406(9-10), 2445-55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-014-7669-z
Chang YJ, et al. A High-throughput Method Based On Microwave-assisted Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry for Simultaneous Analysis of Amphetamines, Ketamine, Opiates, and Their Metabolites in Hair. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2014;406(9-10):2445-55. PubMed PMID: 24604323.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A high-throughput method based on microwave-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous analysis of amphetamines, ketamine, opiates, and their metabolites in hair. AU - Chang,Yuan-Jhe, AU - Chao,Mu-Rong, AU - Chen,Su-Chin, AU - Chen,Chih-Hong, AU - Chang,Yan-Zin, Y1 - 2014/03/07/ PY - 2013/07/18/received PY - 2013/12/29/accepted PY - 2013/12/19/revised PY - 2014/3/8/entrez PY - 2014/3/8/pubmed PY - 2015/4/17/medline SP - 2445 EP - 55 JF - Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry JO - Anal Bioanal Chem VL - 406 IS - 9-10 N2 - A total sample-preparation and analysis time of 50 min is required for the high-throughput method of hair analysis proposed in this paper. The method is applicable to analysis of drugs commonly used in Asia, and their metabolites--methamphetamine (MA), amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), ketamine (K), norketamine (NK), dehydronorketamine (DHNK), 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), morphine (MOR), and codeine (COD). Cut and weighed hair (10 mg) was incubated for 3 min with methanol-trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) during microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) at 700 W. The incubation solution was evaporated, the residue was reconstituted in deionized water-methanol, 99:1 (v/v), and 20 μL was injected on to a core-shell column (50 × 4.6 mm, 2.6 μm particle size) for liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS-MS) analysis. Gradient elution separation was performed in 8 min at a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1). No signal interfering with any of the analytes was found in fourteen blank hair samples from different sources. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.5 pg mg(-1) and 2.0 pg mg(-1), respectively, for MA, AMP, MDMA, MDA, K, NK, and DHNK, and 2.0 pg mg(-1) and 5.0 pg mg(-1), respectively, for 6-AM, MOR and COD. The linear range was between the LOQ and 1000 pg mg(-1), and the correlation coefficients were all greater than 0.999. Investigation of matrix effects revealed that all the analytes were suppressed by less than 20% and the standard deviation (SD) was always less than 7%. Recovery was always greater than 90% and the SD for each compound was less than 6%. Precision and accuracy for each analyte were within 15%. Eight authentic hair specimens from known drug abusers were successfully analyzed. Compared with traditional overnight incubation methods, the rapid 3-min extraction time achieved similar or greater extraction yields. Sample preparation by MAE was a reliable procedure for extraction of the analytes from hair but substantially simpler and faster than other methods. SN - 1618-2650 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24604323/A_high_throughput_method_based_on_microwave_assisted_extraction_and_liquid_chromatography_tandem_mass_spectrometry_for_simultaneous_analysis_of_amphetamines_ketamine_opiates_and_their_metabolites_in_hair_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-014-7669-z DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -