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Dairy products and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

Abstract

Intake of dairy products has been associated with risk of some cancers, but findings are often inconsistent and information on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is limited, particularly from prospective settings. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between consumption of total and specific dairy products (milk/cheese/yogurt) and their components (calcium/vitamin D/fats/protein), with first incident HCC (N(cases) = 191) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, including a nested case-control subset (N(cases) = 122) with the assessment of hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus infections status, liver damage and circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels. For cohort analyses, multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). For nested case-control analyses, conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% CI. A total of 477,206 participants were followed-up for an average of 11 years (person-years follow-up = 5,415,385). In the cohort study, a significant positive HCC risk association was observed for total dairy products (highest vs. lowest tertile, HR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.13-2.43; p(trend) = 0.012), milk (HR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02-2.24; p(trend) = 0.049), and cheese (HR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.38; p(trend) = 0.101), but not yogurt (HR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.65-1.35). Dietary calcium, vitamin D, fat and protein from dairy sources were associated with increased HCC risk, whereas the same nutrients from nondairy sources showed inverse or null associations. In the nested case-control study, similar results were observed among hepatitis-free individuals. Results from this large prospective cohort study suggest that higher consumption of dairy products, particularly milk and cheese, may be associated with increased HCC risk. Validation of these findings in other populations is necessary. Potential biologic mechanisms require further exploration.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC-WHO), Lyon, France.

    , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

    Source

    International journal of cancer 135:7 2014 Oct 01 pg 1662-72

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Carcinoma, Hepatocellular
    Case-Control Studies
    Dairy Products
    Female
    Follow-Up Studies
    Humans
    Liver Neoplasms
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Nutritional Status
    Prognosis
    Prospective Studies
    Risk Factors
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Multicenter Study
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    24615266

    Citation

    Duarte-Salles, Talita, et al. "Dairy Products and Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition." International Journal of Cancer, vol. 135, no. 7, 2014, pp. 1662-72.
    Duarte-Salles T, Fedirko V, Stepien M, et al. Dairy products and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Int J Cancer. 2014;135(7):1662-72.
    Duarte-Salles, T., Fedirko, V., Stepien, M., Trichopoulou, A., Bamia, C., Lagiou, P., ... Jenab, M. (2014). Dairy products and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. International Journal of Cancer, 135(7), pp. 1662-72. doi:10.1002/ijc.28812.
    Duarte-Salles T, et al. Dairy Products and Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition. Int J Cancer. 2014 Oct 1;135(7):1662-72. PubMed PMID: 24615266.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Dairy products and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. AU - Duarte-Salles,Talita, AU - Fedirko,Veronika, AU - Stepien,Magdalena, AU - Trichopoulou,Antonia, AU - Bamia,Christina, AU - Lagiou,Pagona, AU - Lukanova,Annekatrin, AU - Trepo,Elisabeth, AU - Overvad,Kim, AU - Tjønneland,Anne, AU - Halkjaer,Jytte, AU - Boutron-Ruault,Marie-Christine, AU - Racine,Antoine, AU - Cadeau,Claire, AU - Kühn,Tilman, AU - Aleksandrova,Krasimira, AU - Trichopoulos,Dimitrios, AU - Tsiotas,Konstantinos, AU - Boffetta,Paolo, AU - Palli,Domenico, AU - Pala,Valeria, AU - Tumino,Rosario, AU - Sacerdote,Carlotta, AU - Panico,Salvatore, AU - Bueno-de-Mesquita,H B as, AU - Dik,Vincent K, AU - Peeters,Petra H, AU - Weiderpass,Elisabete, AU - Torhild Gram,Inger, AU - Hjartåker,Anette, AU - Ramón Quirós,Jose, AU - Fonseca-Nunes,Ana, AU - Molina-Montes,Esther, AU - Dorronsoro,Miren, AU - Navarro Sanchez,Carmen, AU - Barricarte,Aurelio, AU - Lindkvist,Björn, AU - Sonestedt,Emily, AU - Johansson,Ingegerd, AU - Wennberg,Maria, AU - Khaw,Kay-Tee, AU - Wareham,Nick, AU - Travis,Ruth C, AU - Romieu,Isabelle, AU - Riboli,Elio, AU - Jenab,Mazda, Y1 - 2014/03/07/ PY - 2013/11/25/received PY - 2014/01/27/accepted PY - 2014/3/12/entrez PY - 2014/3/13/pubmed PY - 2014/10/21/medline KW - calcium KW - dairy products KW - hepatocellular carcinoma KW - prospective cohort SP - 1662 EP - 72 JF - International journal of cancer JO - Int. J. Cancer VL - 135 IS - 7 N2 - Intake of dairy products has been associated with risk of some cancers, but findings are often inconsistent and information on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is limited, particularly from prospective settings. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between consumption of total and specific dairy products (milk/cheese/yogurt) and their components (calcium/vitamin D/fats/protein), with first incident HCC (N(cases) = 191) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, including a nested case-control subset (N(cases) = 122) with the assessment of hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus infections status, liver damage and circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels. For cohort analyses, multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). For nested case-control analyses, conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% CI. A total of 477,206 participants were followed-up for an average of 11 years (person-years follow-up = 5,415,385). In the cohort study, a significant positive HCC risk association was observed for total dairy products (highest vs. lowest tertile, HR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.13-2.43; p(trend) = 0.012), milk (HR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02-2.24; p(trend) = 0.049), and cheese (HR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.38; p(trend) = 0.101), but not yogurt (HR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.65-1.35). Dietary calcium, vitamin D, fat and protein from dairy sources were associated with increased HCC risk, whereas the same nutrients from nondairy sources showed inverse or null associations. In the nested case-control study, similar results were observed among hepatitis-free individuals. Results from this large prospective cohort study suggest that higher consumption of dairy products, particularly milk and cheese, may be associated with increased HCC risk. Validation of these findings in other populations is necessary. Potential biologic mechanisms require further exploration. SN - 1097-0215 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24615266/Dairy_products_and_risk_of_hepatocellular_carcinoma:_the_European_Prospective_Investigation_into_Cancer_and_Nutrition_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.28812 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -