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Intellectual, neurocognitive, and academic achievement in abstinent adolescents with cannabis use disorder.

Abstract

RATIONALE

The active component of cannabis, delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has a long half-life and widespread neurocognitive effects. There are inconsistent reports of neurocognitive deficits in adults and adolescents with cannabis use disorders (CUD), particularly after a period of abstinence.

OBJECTIVES

This study aims to examine neurocognitive measures (IQ, academic achievement, attention, memory, executive functions) in abstinent adolescents with CUD, while controlling for demographic, psychopathology, and poly-substance confounders.

METHODS

We investigated neurocognitive performance in three groups: adolescents with CUD after successful first treatment and in full remission (n = 33); controls with psychiatric disorders without substance use disorder history (n = 37); and healthy adolescents (n = 43).

RESULTS

Adolescents with psychiatric disorders, regardless of CUD status, performed significantly worse than the healthy adolescents in academic achievement. No group differences were seen in IQ, attention, memory, or executive functions. Lower academic achievement was positively associated with younger age of CUD onset, regular cannabis use, and maximum daily use. In the CUD group, lifetime nicotine use episodes were negatively associated with IQ. Lower overall neurocognitive function was associated with younger age of onset of regular cannabis use and relapse within the 1 year follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

Verifiably, abstinent adolescents with CUD history did not differ from the two comparison groups, suggesting that previously reported neurocognitive deficits may be related to other factors, including residual drug effects, preexisting cognitive deficits, concurrent use of other substances (e.g., nicotine), or psychopathology. Adolescents with CUD may not be vulnerable to THC neuropsychological deficits once they achieve remission from all drugs for at least 30 days.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Psychiatry and Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

    ,

    Source

    Psychopharmacology 231:8 2014 Apr pg 1467-77

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Age of Onset
    Attention
    Dronabinol
    Educational Status
    Executive Function
    Female
    Humans
    Intelligence
    Intelligence Tests
    Male
    Marijuana Abuse
    Memory
    Mental Disorders
    Psychological Tests
    Psychotropic Drugs
    Remission Induction
    Street Drugs

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    24619597

    Citation

    Hooper, Stephen R., et al. "Intellectual, Neurocognitive, and Academic Achievement in Abstinent Adolescents With Cannabis Use Disorder." Psychopharmacology, vol. 231, no. 8, 2014, pp. 1467-77.
    Hooper SR, Woolley D, De Bellis MD. Intellectual, neurocognitive, and academic achievement in abstinent adolescents with cannabis use disorder. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2014;231(8):1467-77.
    Hooper, S. R., Woolley, D., & De Bellis, M. D. (2014). Intellectual, neurocognitive, and academic achievement in abstinent adolescents with cannabis use disorder. Psychopharmacology, 231(8), pp. 1467-77. doi:10.1007/s00213-014-3463-z.
    Hooper SR, Woolley D, De Bellis MD. Intellectual, Neurocognitive, and Academic Achievement in Abstinent Adolescents With Cannabis Use Disorder. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2014;231(8):1467-77. PubMed PMID: 24619597.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Intellectual, neurocognitive, and academic achievement in abstinent adolescents with cannabis use disorder. AU - Hooper,Stephen R, AU - Woolley,Donald, AU - De Bellis,Michael D, Y1 - 2014/03/12/ PY - 2013/05/17/received PY - 2014/01/21/accepted PY - 2014/3/13/entrez PY - 2014/3/13/pubmed PY - 2015/1/27/medline SP - 1467 EP - 77 JF - Psychopharmacology JO - Psychopharmacology (Berl.) VL - 231 IS - 8 N2 - RATIONALE: The active component of cannabis, delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has a long half-life and widespread neurocognitive effects. There are inconsistent reports of neurocognitive deficits in adults and adolescents with cannabis use disorders (CUD), particularly after a period of abstinence. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine neurocognitive measures (IQ, academic achievement, attention, memory, executive functions) in abstinent adolescents with CUD, while controlling for demographic, psychopathology, and poly-substance confounders. METHODS: We investigated neurocognitive performance in three groups: adolescents with CUD after successful first treatment and in full remission (n = 33); controls with psychiatric disorders without substance use disorder history (n = 37); and healthy adolescents (n = 43). RESULTS: Adolescents with psychiatric disorders, regardless of CUD status, performed significantly worse than the healthy adolescents in academic achievement. No group differences were seen in IQ, attention, memory, or executive functions. Lower academic achievement was positively associated with younger age of CUD onset, regular cannabis use, and maximum daily use. In the CUD group, lifetime nicotine use episodes were negatively associated with IQ. Lower overall neurocognitive function was associated with younger age of onset of regular cannabis use and relapse within the 1 year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Verifiably, abstinent adolescents with CUD history did not differ from the two comparison groups, suggesting that previously reported neurocognitive deficits may be related to other factors, including residual drug effects, preexisting cognitive deficits, concurrent use of other substances (e.g., nicotine), or psychopathology. Adolescents with CUD may not be vulnerable to THC neuropsychological deficits once they achieve remission from all drugs for at least 30 days. SN - 1432-2072 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24619597/Intellectual_neurocognitive_and_academic_achievement_in_abstinent_adolescents_with_cannabis_use_disorder_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-014-3463-z DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -