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Critical influence of chloride ions on silver ion-mediated acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles to zebrafish embryos.
Nanotoxicology. 2015 Feb; 9(1):81-91.N

Abstract

The toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) to aquatic organisms, including zebrafish (Danio rerio), has been demonstrated, but differing opinions exist on the contribution of the physical properties of the particles themselves and the free dissolved silver ions (Ag(+)) to the observed effects. High concentrations of chloride ions (Cl(-)) in the routinely used exposure media can cause precipitation of Ag(+) as AgCl, as well as complexation of silver in diverse soluble chlorocomplexes, thus masking the contribution of dissolved silver to AgNP toxicity. In the present study, we formulated a zebrafish exposure medium with a low chloride content and exposed zebrafish embryos to AgNO3 or carbonate-coated AgNP. The severity of toxicity caused by both silver forms depended on the time of exposure start, with younger embryos being most sensitive. Toxicity caused by both AgNO3 and AgNP was of the same order of magnitude when compared based on the total dissolved silver concentration and could be prevented by addition of the Ag(+) chelator cysteine. Further, we have analyzed the data from several previous studies to evaluate the influence of interactions between Ag(+) and Cl(-) on silver toxicity to zebrafish embryos. Our analysis demonstrates that the acute toxicity of AgNP to zebrafish embryos is largely mediated by Ag(+). The influence of particle size and coating can at least partially be explained by the differences in Ag(+) dissolution. High Cl(-) levels in the exposure medium indeed have a pivotal influence on the resulting toxicity of AgNP, appearing to significantly attenuate toxicity in several studies. This consideration should influence the choice of exposure medium to be used when evaluating and comparing AgNP toxicity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology , Dübendorf , Switzerland .No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24625062

Citation

Groh, Ksenia J., et al. "Critical Influence of Chloride Ions On Silver Ion-mediated Acute Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles to Zebrafish Embryos." Nanotoxicology, vol. 9, no. 1, 2015, pp. 81-91.
Groh KJ, Dalkvist T, Piccapietra F, et al. Critical influence of chloride ions on silver ion-mediated acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles to zebrafish embryos. Nanotoxicology. 2015;9(1):81-91.
Groh, K. J., Dalkvist, T., Piccapietra, F., Behra, R., Suter, M. J., & Schirmer, K. (2015). Critical influence of chloride ions on silver ion-mediated acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles to zebrafish embryos. Nanotoxicology, 9(1), 81-91. https://doi.org/10.3109/17435390.2014.893379
Groh KJ, et al. Critical Influence of Chloride Ions On Silver Ion-mediated Acute Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles to Zebrafish Embryos. Nanotoxicology. 2015;9(1):81-91. PubMed PMID: 24625062.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Critical influence of chloride ions on silver ion-mediated acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles to zebrafish embryos. AU - Groh,Ksenia J, AU - Dalkvist,Trine, AU - Piccapietra,Flavio, AU - Behra,Renata, AU - Suter,Marc J-F, AU - Schirmer,Kristin, Y1 - 2014/03/14/ PY - 2014/3/15/entrez PY - 2014/3/15/pubmed PY - 2015/12/29/medline KW - Cysteine KW - Danio rerio KW - exposure medium composition KW - silver nanoparticle toxicity KW - silver speciation SP - 81 EP - 91 JF - Nanotoxicology JO - Nanotoxicology VL - 9 IS - 1 N2 - The toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) to aquatic organisms, including zebrafish (Danio rerio), has been demonstrated, but differing opinions exist on the contribution of the physical properties of the particles themselves and the free dissolved silver ions (Ag(+)) to the observed effects. High concentrations of chloride ions (Cl(-)) in the routinely used exposure media can cause precipitation of Ag(+) as AgCl, as well as complexation of silver in diverse soluble chlorocomplexes, thus masking the contribution of dissolved silver to AgNP toxicity. In the present study, we formulated a zebrafish exposure medium with a low chloride content and exposed zebrafish embryos to AgNO3 or carbonate-coated AgNP. The severity of toxicity caused by both silver forms depended on the time of exposure start, with younger embryos being most sensitive. Toxicity caused by both AgNO3 and AgNP was of the same order of magnitude when compared based on the total dissolved silver concentration and could be prevented by addition of the Ag(+) chelator cysteine. Further, we have analyzed the data from several previous studies to evaluate the influence of interactions between Ag(+) and Cl(-) on silver toxicity to zebrafish embryos. Our analysis demonstrates that the acute toxicity of AgNP to zebrafish embryos is largely mediated by Ag(+). The influence of particle size and coating can at least partially be explained by the differences in Ag(+) dissolution. High Cl(-) levels in the exposure medium indeed have a pivotal influence on the resulting toxicity of AgNP, appearing to significantly attenuate toxicity in several studies. This consideration should influence the choice of exposure medium to be used when evaluating and comparing AgNP toxicity. SN - 1743-5404 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24625062/Critical_influence_of_chloride_ions_on_silver_ion_mediated_acute_toxicity_of_silver_nanoparticles_to_zebrafish_embryos_ L2 - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/17435390.2014.893379 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -