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Skin and soft tissue infections following marine injuries and exposures in travelers.
J Travel Med. 2014 May-Jun; 21(3):207-13.JT

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Bacterial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in travelers often follow insect bites and can present a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from impetigo to necrotizing cellulitis. Significant SSTIs can also follow marine injuries and exposures in travelers, and the etiologies are often marine bacteria.

METHODS

To meet the objectives of describing the pathogen-specific presenting clinical manifestations, diagnostic and treatment strategies, and outcomes of superficial and deep invasive infections in travelers caused by commonly encountered and newly emerging marine bacterial pathogens, Internet search engines were queried with the key words as MESH terms.

RESULTS

Travel medicine practitioners should maintain a high index of suspicion regarding potentially catastrophic, invasive bacterial infections, especially Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio vulnificus, Chromobacterium violaceum, and Shewanella infections, following marine injuries and exposures.

CONCLUSIONS

Travelers with well-known risk factors for the increasing severity of marine infections, including those with open wounds, suppressed immune systems, liver disease, alcoholism, hemochromatosis, hematological disease, diabetes, chronic renal disease, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and cancer, should be cautioned about the risks of marine infections through exposures to marine animals, seawater, the preparation of live or freshly killed seafood, and the accidental ingestion of seawater or consumption of raw or undercooked seafood, especially shellfish. With the exception of minor marine wounds demonstrating localized cellulitis or spreading erysipeloid-type reactions, most other marine infections and all Gram-negative and mycobacterial marine infections will require therapy with antibiotic combinations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health; Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC), New Orleans, LA, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24628985

Citation

Diaz, James H.. "Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Following Marine Injuries and Exposures in Travelers." Journal of Travel Medicine, vol. 21, no. 3, 2014, pp. 207-13.
Diaz JH. Skin and soft tissue infections following marine injuries and exposures in travelers. J Travel Med. 2014;21(3):207-13.
Diaz, J. H. (2014). Skin and soft tissue infections following marine injuries and exposures in travelers. Journal of Travel Medicine, 21(3), 207-13. https://doi.org/10.1111/jtm.12115
Diaz JH. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Following Marine Injuries and Exposures in Travelers. J Travel Med. 2014 May-Jun;21(3):207-13. PubMed PMID: 24628985.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Skin and soft tissue infections following marine injuries and exposures in travelers. A1 - Diaz,James H, Y1 - 2014/03/14/ PY - 2013/08/09/received PY - 2013/11/23/revised PY - 2013/12/01/accepted PY - 2014/3/18/entrez PY - 2014/3/19/pubmed PY - 2014/12/17/medline SP - 207 EP - 13 JF - Journal of travel medicine JO - J Travel Med VL - 21 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Bacterial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in travelers often follow insect bites and can present a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from impetigo to necrotizing cellulitis. Significant SSTIs can also follow marine injuries and exposures in travelers, and the etiologies are often marine bacteria. METHODS: To meet the objectives of describing the pathogen-specific presenting clinical manifestations, diagnostic and treatment strategies, and outcomes of superficial and deep invasive infections in travelers caused by commonly encountered and newly emerging marine bacterial pathogens, Internet search engines were queried with the key words as MESH terms. RESULTS: Travel medicine practitioners should maintain a high index of suspicion regarding potentially catastrophic, invasive bacterial infections, especially Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio vulnificus, Chromobacterium violaceum, and Shewanella infections, following marine injuries and exposures. CONCLUSIONS: Travelers with well-known risk factors for the increasing severity of marine infections, including those with open wounds, suppressed immune systems, liver disease, alcoholism, hemochromatosis, hematological disease, diabetes, chronic renal disease, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and cancer, should be cautioned about the risks of marine infections through exposures to marine animals, seawater, the preparation of live or freshly killed seafood, and the accidental ingestion of seawater or consumption of raw or undercooked seafood, especially shellfish. With the exception of minor marine wounds demonstrating localized cellulitis or spreading erysipeloid-type reactions, most other marine infections and all Gram-negative and mycobacterial marine infections will require therapy with antibiotic combinations. SN - 1708-8305 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24628985/Skin_and_soft_tissue_infections_following_marine_injuries_and_exposures_in_travelers_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jtm/article-lookup/doi/10.1111/jtm.12115 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -