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Recent advances in the understanding of brown spider venoms: From the biology of spiders to the molecular mechanisms of toxins.
Toxicon. 2014 Jun; 83:91-120.T

Abstract

The Loxosceles genus spiders (the brown spiders) are encountered in all the continents, and the clinical manifestations following spider bites include skin necrosis with gravitational lesion spreading and occasional systemic manifestations, such as intravascular hemolysis, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure. Brown spider venoms are complex mixtures of toxins especially enriched in three molecular families: the phospholipases D, astacin-like metalloproteases and Inhibitor Cystine Knot (ICK) peptides. Other toxins with low level of expression also present in the venom include the serine proteases, serine protease inhibitors, hyaluronidases, allergen factors and translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP). The mechanisms by which the Loxosceles venoms act and exert their noxious effects are not fully understood. Except for the brown spider venom phospholipase D, which causes dermonecrosis, hemolysis, thrombocytopenia and renal failure, the pathological activities of the other venom toxins remain unclear. The objective of the present review is to provide insights into the brown spider venoms and loxoscelism based on recent results. These insights include the biology of brown spiders, the clinical features of loxoscelism and the diagnosis and therapy of brown spider bites. Regarding the brown spider venom, this review includes a description of the novel toxins revealed by molecular biology and proteomics techniques, the data regarding three-dimensional toxin structures, and the mechanism of action of these molecules. Finally, the biotechnological applications of the venom components, especially for those toxins reported as recombinant molecules, and the challenges for future study are discussed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia Clínica, Hospital de Clínicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil.Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil; Departamento de Biologia Estrutural, Molecular e Genética, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil.Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.Centro Multiusuário de Inovação Biomolecular, Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.Centro Multiusuário de Inovação Biomolecular, Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.Laboratório de Imunopatologia, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil.Laboratório Nacional de Biociências (LNBio), Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.Centro Multiusuário de Inovação Biomolecular, Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address: veigass@ufpr.br.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24631373

Citation

Gremski, Luiza Helena, et al. "Recent Advances in the Understanding of Brown Spider Venoms: From the Biology of Spiders to the Molecular Mechanisms of Toxins." Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, vol. 83, 2014, pp. 91-120.
Gremski LH, Trevisan-Silva D, Ferrer VP, et al. Recent advances in the understanding of brown spider venoms: From the biology of spiders to the molecular mechanisms of toxins. Toxicon. 2014;83:91-120.
Gremski, L. H., Trevisan-Silva, D., Ferrer, V. P., Matsubara, F. H., Meissner, G. O., Wille, A. C., Vuitika, L., Dias-Lopes, C., Ullah, A., de Moraes, F. R., Chávez-Olórtegui, C., Barbaro, K. C., Murakami, M. T., Arni, R. K., Senff-Ribeiro, A., Chaim, O. M., & Veiga, S. S. (2014). Recent advances in the understanding of brown spider venoms: From the biology of spiders to the molecular mechanisms of toxins. Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, 83, 91-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2014.02.023
Gremski LH, et al. Recent Advances in the Understanding of Brown Spider Venoms: From the Biology of Spiders to the Molecular Mechanisms of Toxins. Toxicon. 2014;83:91-120. PubMed PMID: 24631373.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Recent advances in the understanding of brown spider venoms: From the biology of spiders to the molecular mechanisms of toxins. AU - Gremski,Luiza Helena, AU - Trevisan-Silva,Dilza, AU - Ferrer,Valéria Pereira, AU - Matsubara,Fernando Hitomi, AU - Meissner,Gabriel Otto, AU - Wille,Ana Carolina Martins, AU - Vuitika,Larissa, AU - Dias-Lopes,Camila, AU - Ullah,Anwar, AU - de Moraes,Fábio Rogério, AU - Chávez-Olórtegui,Carlos, AU - Barbaro,Katia Cristina, AU - Murakami,Mario Tyago, AU - Arni,Raghuvir Krishnaswamy, AU - Senff-Ribeiro,Andrea, AU - Chaim,Olga Meiri, AU - Veiga,Silvio Sanches, Y1 - 2014/03/11/ PY - 2013/08/06/received PY - 2013/12/19/revised PY - 2014/02/27/accepted PY - 2014/3/18/entrez PY - 2014/3/19/pubmed PY - 2015/1/13/medline KW - Brown spider KW - Dermonecrosis KW - Loxosceles KW - Loxoscelism KW - Toxins KW - Venom SP - 91 EP - 120 JF - Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology JO - Toxicon VL - 83 N2 - The Loxosceles genus spiders (the brown spiders) are encountered in all the continents, and the clinical manifestations following spider bites include skin necrosis with gravitational lesion spreading and occasional systemic manifestations, such as intravascular hemolysis, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure. Brown spider venoms are complex mixtures of toxins especially enriched in three molecular families: the phospholipases D, astacin-like metalloproteases and Inhibitor Cystine Knot (ICK) peptides. Other toxins with low level of expression also present in the venom include the serine proteases, serine protease inhibitors, hyaluronidases, allergen factors and translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP). The mechanisms by which the Loxosceles venoms act and exert their noxious effects are not fully understood. Except for the brown spider venom phospholipase D, which causes dermonecrosis, hemolysis, thrombocytopenia and renal failure, the pathological activities of the other venom toxins remain unclear. The objective of the present review is to provide insights into the brown spider venoms and loxoscelism based on recent results. These insights include the biology of brown spiders, the clinical features of loxoscelism and the diagnosis and therapy of brown spider bites. Regarding the brown spider venom, this review includes a description of the novel toxins revealed by molecular biology and proteomics techniques, the data regarding three-dimensional toxin structures, and the mechanism of action of these molecules. Finally, the biotechnological applications of the venom components, especially for those toxins reported as recombinant molecules, and the challenges for future study are discussed. SN - 1879-3150 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24631373/Recent_advances_in_the_understanding_of_brown_spider_venoms:_From_the_biology_of_spiders_to_the_molecular_mechanisms_of_toxins_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0041-0101(14)00075-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -