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Role of conditioning and verbal suggestion in placebo and nocebo effects on itch.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e91727.Plos

Abstract

Placebo and nocebo effects are known to play a key role in treatment effects in a wide variety of conditions. These effects have frequently been investigated with regard to pain and also in other physical sensations, but have hardly been investigated with regard to itch. In addition, neither in pain nor in any other physical sensation, the single and combined contribution of the expectancy mechanisms of conditioning and verbal suggestion have ever been investigated in both placebo and nocebo effects within one design. For the first time, the role of verbal suggestion and conditioning in placebo and nocebo effects on itch was experimentally investigated. Expectations about itch stimuli were induced in healthy subjects by verbal suggestion, conditioning, or a combination of both procedures, and compared with a control group without expectation induction. Itch was induced electrically by means of quantitative sensory testing. Significant placebo and nocebo effects were induced in the group in which combined procedures of conditioning and verbal suggestion were applied in comparison with the control group. The conditioning and verbal suggestion procedures applied individually did not induce significant placebo and nocebo effects when compared with the control group. The results of this study extend existing evidence on different physical sensations, like pain, by showing that also for itch, the combination of conditioning and verbal suggestion is most promising in inducing both placebo and nocebo effects. More research on placebo and nocebo effects at a perceptive and neurobiological level is warranted to further elucidate the common and specific mechanisms underlying placebo and nocebo effects on itch and other physical sensations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Unit of Health, Medical and Neuropsychology, Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands; Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.Unit of Health, Medical and Neuropsychology, Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands; Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.Department of Anesthesiology, Pain, and Palliative Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.Department for Health Evidence, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.Unit of Health, Medical and Neuropsychology, Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands; Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.Department of Dermatology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.Unit of Health, Medical and Neuropsychology, Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands; Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24646924

Citation

Bartels, Danielle J P., et al. "Role of Conditioning and Verbal Suggestion in Placebo and Nocebo Effects On Itch." PloS One, vol. 9, no. 3, 2014, pp. e91727.
Bartels DJ, van Laarhoven AI, Haverkamp EA, et al. Role of conditioning and verbal suggestion in placebo and nocebo effects on itch. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(3):e91727.
Bartels, D. J., van Laarhoven, A. I., Haverkamp, E. A., Wilder-Smith, O. H., Donders, A. R., van Middendorp, H., van de Kerkhof, P. C., & Evers, A. W. (2014). Role of conditioning and verbal suggestion in placebo and nocebo effects on itch. PloS One, 9(3), e91727. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091727
Bartels DJ, et al. Role of Conditioning and Verbal Suggestion in Placebo and Nocebo Effects On Itch. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(3):e91727. PubMed PMID: 24646924.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Role of conditioning and verbal suggestion in placebo and nocebo effects on itch. AU - Bartels,Danielle J P, AU - van Laarhoven,Antoinette I M, AU - Haverkamp,Elise A, AU - Wilder-Smith,Oliver H, AU - Donders,A Rogier T, AU - van Middendorp,Henriët, AU - van de Kerkhof,Peter C M, AU - Evers,Andrea W M, Y1 - 2014/03/19/ PY - 2013/09/03/received PY - 2014/02/13/accepted PY - 2014/3/21/entrez PY - 2014/3/22/pubmed PY - 2014/12/24/medline SP - e91727 EP - e91727 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 9 IS - 3 N2 - Placebo and nocebo effects are known to play a key role in treatment effects in a wide variety of conditions. These effects have frequently been investigated with regard to pain and also in other physical sensations, but have hardly been investigated with regard to itch. In addition, neither in pain nor in any other physical sensation, the single and combined contribution of the expectancy mechanisms of conditioning and verbal suggestion have ever been investigated in both placebo and nocebo effects within one design. For the first time, the role of verbal suggestion and conditioning in placebo and nocebo effects on itch was experimentally investigated. Expectations about itch stimuli were induced in healthy subjects by verbal suggestion, conditioning, or a combination of both procedures, and compared with a control group without expectation induction. Itch was induced electrically by means of quantitative sensory testing. Significant placebo and nocebo effects were induced in the group in which combined procedures of conditioning and verbal suggestion were applied in comparison with the control group. The conditioning and verbal suggestion procedures applied individually did not induce significant placebo and nocebo effects when compared with the control group. The results of this study extend existing evidence on different physical sensations, like pain, by showing that also for itch, the combination of conditioning and verbal suggestion is most promising in inducing both placebo and nocebo effects. More research on placebo and nocebo effects at a perceptive and neurobiological level is warranted to further elucidate the common and specific mechanisms underlying placebo and nocebo effects on itch and other physical sensations. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24646924/Role_of_conditioning_and_verbal_suggestion_in_placebo_and_nocebo_effects_on_itch_ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091727 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -