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Exposure to air pollution and respiratory symptoms during the first 7 years of life in an Italian birth cohort.
Occup Environ Med. 2014 Jun; 71(6):430-6.OE

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Ambient air pollution has been consistently associated with exacerbation of respiratory diseases in schoolchildren, but the role of early exposure to traffic-related air pollution in the first occurrence of respiratory symptoms and asthma is not yet clear.

METHODS

We assessed the association between indexes of exposure to traffic-related air pollution during different periods of life and respiratory outcomes in a birth cohort of 672 newborns (Rome, Italy). Direct interviews of the mother were conducted at birth and at 6, 15 months, 4 and 7 years. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution was assessed for each residential address during the follow-up period using a Land-Use Regression model (LUR) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and a Geographic Information System (GIS) variable of proximity to high-traffic roads (HTR) (>10 000vehicles/day). We used age-specific NO2 levels to develop indices of exposure at birth, current, and lifetime time-weighted average. The association of NO2 and traffic proximity with respiratory disorders were evaluated using logistic regression in a longitudinal approach (Generalised Estimating Equation). The exposure indexes were used as continuous and categorical variables (cut-off points based on the 75th percentile for NO2 and the 25th percentile for distance from HTRs).

RESULTS

The average NO2 exposure level at birth was 37.2 μg/m(3) (SD 7.2, 10-90th range 29.2-46.1). There were no statistical significant associations between the exposure indices and the respiratory outcomes in the longitudinal model. The odds ratios for a 10-µg/m(3) increase in time-weighted average NO2 exposure were: asthma incidence OR=1.09; 95 CI% 0.78 to 1.52, wheezing OR=1.07; 95 CI% 0.90 to 1.28, shortness of breath with wheezing OR=1.16; 95 CI% 0.94 to 1.43, cough or phlegm apart from cold OR=1.11; 95 CI% 0.92 to 1.33, and otitis OR=1.08; 95 CI% 0.89 to 1.32. Stronger but not significant associations were found considering the 75th percentile of the NO2 distribution as a cut-off, especially for incidence of asthma and prevalence of wheeze (OR=1.41; 95 CI% 0.88 to 2.28 and OR=1.27; 95 CI% 0.95 to 1.70, respectively); the highest OR was found for wheezing (OR=2.29; 95 CI% 1.15 to 4.56) at the 7-year follow-up. No association was found with distance from HTRs.

CONCLUSIONS

Exposure to traffic-related air pollution is only weakly associated with respiratory symptoms in young children in the first 7 years of life.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Environmental Health Reference Centre, Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention of Emilia-Romagna, Modena, Italy.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24659182

Citation

Ranzi, Andrea, et al. "Exposure to Air Pollution and Respiratory Symptoms During the First 7 Years of Life in an Italian Birth Cohort." Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 71, no. 6, 2014, pp. 430-6.
Ranzi A, Porta D, Badaloni C, et al. Exposure to air pollution and respiratory symptoms during the first 7 years of life in an Italian birth cohort. Occup Environ Med. 2014;71(6):430-6.
Ranzi, A., Porta, D., Badaloni, C., Cesaroni, G., Lauriola, P., Davoli, M., & Forastiere, F. (2014). Exposure to air pollution and respiratory symptoms during the first 7 years of life in an Italian birth cohort. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 71(6), 430-6. https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2013-101867
Ranzi A, et al. Exposure to Air Pollution and Respiratory Symptoms During the First 7 Years of Life in an Italian Birth Cohort. Occup Environ Med. 2014;71(6):430-6. PubMed PMID: 24659182.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Exposure to air pollution and respiratory symptoms during the first 7 years of life in an Italian birth cohort. AU - Ranzi,Andrea, AU - Porta,Daniela, AU - Badaloni,Chiara, AU - Cesaroni,Giulia, AU - Lauriola,Paolo, AU - Davoli,Marina, AU - Forastiere,Francesco, Y1 - 2014/03/21/ PY - 2014/3/25/entrez PY - 2014/3/25/pubmed PY - 2014/6/24/medline KW - Exposure assessment < Methodology, speciality KW - Land Use Regression Model KW - Pollution < Materials, exposures and occupational groups SP - 430 EP - 6 JF - Occupational and environmental medicine JO - Occup Environ Med VL - 71 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been consistently associated with exacerbation of respiratory diseases in schoolchildren, but the role of early exposure to traffic-related air pollution in the first occurrence of respiratory symptoms and asthma is not yet clear. METHODS: We assessed the association between indexes of exposure to traffic-related air pollution during different periods of life and respiratory outcomes in a birth cohort of 672 newborns (Rome, Italy). Direct interviews of the mother were conducted at birth and at 6, 15 months, 4 and 7 years. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution was assessed for each residential address during the follow-up period using a Land-Use Regression model (LUR) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and a Geographic Information System (GIS) variable of proximity to high-traffic roads (HTR) (>10 000vehicles/day). We used age-specific NO2 levels to develop indices of exposure at birth, current, and lifetime time-weighted average. The association of NO2 and traffic proximity with respiratory disorders were evaluated using logistic regression in a longitudinal approach (Generalised Estimating Equation). The exposure indexes were used as continuous and categorical variables (cut-off points based on the 75th percentile for NO2 and the 25th percentile for distance from HTRs). RESULTS: The average NO2 exposure level at birth was 37.2 μg/m(3) (SD 7.2, 10-90th range 29.2-46.1). There were no statistical significant associations between the exposure indices and the respiratory outcomes in the longitudinal model. The odds ratios for a 10-µg/m(3) increase in time-weighted average NO2 exposure were: asthma incidence OR=1.09; 95 CI% 0.78 to 1.52, wheezing OR=1.07; 95 CI% 0.90 to 1.28, shortness of breath with wheezing OR=1.16; 95 CI% 0.94 to 1.43, cough or phlegm apart from cold OR=1.11; 95 CI% 0.92 to 1.33, and otitis OR=1.08; 95 CI% 0.89 to 1.32. Stronger but not significant associations were found considering the 75th percentile of the NO2 distribution as a cut-off, especially for incidence of asthma and prevalence of wheeze (OR=1.41; 95 CI% 0.88 to 2.28 and OR=1.27; 95 CI% 0.95 to 1.70, respectively); the highest OR was found for wheezing (OR=2.29; 95 CI% 1.15 to 4.56) at the 7-year follow-up. No association was found with distance from HTRs. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to traffic-related air pollution is only weakly associated with respiratory symptoms in young children in the first 7 years of life. SN - 1470-7926 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24659182/Exposure_to_air_pollution_and_respiratory_symptoms_during_the_first_7_years_of_life_in_an_Italian_birth_cohort_ L2 - https://oem.bmj.com/lookup/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=24659182 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -