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Unravelling a vicious circle: animal feed marketed in Costa Rica contains irregular concentrations of tetracyclines and abundant oxytetracycline-resistant Gram-positive bacteria.

Abstract

Diverse tetracyclines are used to prevent and control bacterial infections in livestock and farmed fish. These drugs are administered through the diet, but farmers seldom check whether feed contains antibiotic-resistant bacteria that may colonise their crops or transfer their resistance traits to species of veterinary relevance. To examine whether antibiotic dosage defines the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in animal feed, we determined the concentration of parental compounds and epimers of oxytetracycline (OTC), doxycycline, tetracycline and chlortetracycline, as well as the abundance and resistance level of OTC-resistant bacteria in samples of fish (n = 21), poultry (n = 21), swine (n = 21), and shrimp feed (n = 21) marketed in Costa Rica. Fish feed contained the highest amounts of tetracyclines (119-8365 mg kg(-1)) and the largest proportion of bacteria resistant to 10 μg ml(-1) (1.8-92.4%) or 100 μg ml(-1) of OTC (12.5-63.8%). Poultry (78-438 mg kg(-1)) and swine (41-1076 mg kg(-1)) feed had intermediate concentrations of tetracyclines and OTC-resistant bacteria (0.2-66% and 0.3-49%, respectively), whereas shrimp feed showed the lowest amounts of tetracyclines (21.5-50.3 mg kg(-1)), no OTC and no culturable OTC-resistant bacteria. In line with these results, the MIC50 of OTC for 150 isolates from fish and poultry feed was > 256 µg ml(-1), while that of 150 bacteria isolated from swine feed was 192 µg ml(-1). Phenotypic tests, fatty acid profiles and proteotypic analyses by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass-spectroscopy revealed that most OTC-resistant isolates were Gram-positive bacteria of low G+C% content from the genera Staphylococcus and Bacillus. Clear correlations between OTC dosage and feed colonisation with OTC-resistant bacteria were seen in medicated feed for fish (r = 0.179-0.651). Nonetheless, some unmedicated feed for fish, swine and poultry contained large populations of OTC-resistant bacteria, suggesting that raw materials and manufacturing processes may also influence carriage of OTC-resistant bacteria in animal feed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a Centro de Investigación en Nutrición Animal (CINA) , Universidad de Costa Rica, Ciudad Universitaria Rodrigo Facio , San José , Costa Rica.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24660748

Citation

Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio, et al. "Unravelling a Vicious Circle: Animal Feed Marketed in Costa Rica Contains Irregular Concentrations of Tetracyclines and Abundant Oxytetracycline-resistant Gram-positive Bacteria." Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment, vol. 31, no. 6, 2014, pp. 1017-25.
Granados-Chinchilla F, Alfaro M, Chavarría G, et al. Unravelling a vicious circle: animal feed marketed in Costa Rica contains irregular concentrations of tetracyclines and abundant oxytetracycline-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2014;31(6):1017-25.
Granados-Chinchilla, F., Alfaro, M., Chavarría, G., & Rodríguez, C. (2014). Unravelling a vicious circle: animal feed marketed in Costa Rica contains irregular concentrations of tetracyclines and abundant oxytetracycline-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment, 31(6), 1017-25. https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2014.907504
Granados-Chinchilla F, et al. Unravelling a Vicious Circle: Animal Feed Marketed in Costa Rica Contains Irregular Concentrations of Tetracyclines and Abundant Oxytetracycline-resistant Gram-positive Bacteria. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2014;31(6):1017-25. PubMed PMID: 24660748.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Unravelling a vicious circle: animal feed marketed in Costa Rica contains irregular concentrations of tetracyclines and abundant oxytetracycline-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. AU - Granados-Chinchilla,Fabio, AU - Alfaro,Margarita, AU - Chavarría,Guadalupe, AU - Rodríguez,César, Y1 - 2014/04/29/ PY - 2014/3/26/entrez PY - 2014/3/26/pubmed PY - 2015/5/12/medline KW - animal feed KW - antibiotic resistance KW - tetracyclines SP - 1017 EP - 25 JF - Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment JO - Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess VL - 31 IS - 6 N2 - Diverse tetracyclines are used to prevent and control bacterial infections in livestock and farmed fish. These drugs are administered through the diet, but farmers seldom check whether feed contains antibiotic-resistant bacteria that may colonise their crops or transfer their resistance traits to species of veterinary relevance. To examine whether antibiotic dosage defines the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in animal feed, we determined the concentration of parental compounds and epimers of oxytetracycline (OTC), doxycycline, tetracycline and chlortetracycline, as well as the abundance and resistance level of OTC-resistant bacteria in samples of fish (n = 21), poultry (n = 21), swine (n = 21), and shrimp feed (n = 21) marketed in Costa Rica. Fish feed contained the highest amounts of tetracyclines (119-8365 mg kg(-1)) and the largest proportion of bacteria resistant to 10 μg ml(-1) (1.8-92.4%) or 100 μg ml(-1) of OTC (12.5-63.8%). Poultry (78-438 mg kg(-1)) and swine (41-1076 mg kg(-1)) feed had intermediate concentrations of tetracyclines and OTC-resistant bacteria (0.2-66% and 0.3-49%, respectively), whereas shrimp feed showed the lowest amounts of tetracyclines (21.5-50.3 mg kg(-1)), no OTC and no culturable OTC-resistant bacteria. In line with these results, the MIC50 of OTC for 150 isolates from fish and poultry feed was > 256 µg ml(-1), while that of 150 bacteria isolated from swine feed was 192 µg ml(-1). Phenotypic tests, fatty acid profiles and proteotypic analyses by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass-spectroscopy revealed that most OTC-resistant isolates were Gram-positive bacteria of low G+C% content from the genera Staphylococcus and Bacillus. Clear correlations between OTC dosage and feed colonisation with OTC-resistant bacteria were seen in medicated feed for fish (r = 0.179-0.651). Nonetheless, some unmedicated feed for fish, swine and poultry contained large populations of OTC-resistant bacteria, suggesting that raw materials and manufacturing processes may also influence carriage of OTC-resistant bacteria in animal feed. SN - 1944-0057 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24660748/Unravelling_a_vicious_circle:_animal_feed_marketed_in_Costa_Rica_contains_irregular_concentrations_of_tetracyclines_and_abundant_oxytetracycline_resistant_Gram_positive_bacteria_ L2 - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19440049.2014.907504 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -