Structural model for estimating the influence of cognitive reserve on cognitive performance in adults with subjective memory complaints.Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2014; 29(3):245-55AC
Cognitive reserve (CR) is often operationally defined as a complex structure of latent variables. Here, we present a structural model that analyzes the effect of CR on three cognitive domains: episodic memory, working memory, and general cognitive performance. We developed and analyzed a structural equation model (SEM) to study CR and cognitive performance in 326 participants over 50 years old with subjective memory complaints. The CR construct was found to consist of two factors: (a) educational level and (b) lifestyle. The model revealed that CR had significant direct effects on episodic memory, working memory, and general cognitive performance, and indirect effects on episodic memory via working memory. As a latent construct, CR is related to cognitive performance in participants over 50 years with subjective memory complaints, and it should therefore be considered in the evaluation and diagnosis of such people.