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Increase of EPA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acid levels in human plasma after a single dose of long-chain omega-3 PUFA.
Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 2014; 109-111:23-31PO

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Several supplementation studies with long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) describe an increase of EPA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids in blood, while changes in levels of other LC n-3 and n-6 PUFA-derived oxylipins were minor. In order to investigate the kinetics of changes in oxylipin levels in response to LC n-3 PUFA ingestion, we conducted a single dose treatment study with healthy subjects.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS

In the present kinetic study, we compared patterns of hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids in plasma of 6 healthy men before and after 6, 8, 24, and 48h of fish oil (1008mg EPA and 672mg DHA) ingestion. Levels of EPA- as well as other LC PUFA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids were analyzed in plasma by LC-MS. Additionally, levels of these oxylipins were compared with their parent PUFA levels in plasma phospholipids.

RESULTS

All EPA-derived oxylipin levels were significantly increased 6h after LC n-3 PUFA ingestion and gradually drop thereafter reaching the baseline levels about 48h after treatment. The relative increase in EPA plasma phospholipid levels highly correlated with the increase of plasma EPA-derived oxylipin levels at different time points. In contrast, plasma levels of arachidonic acid- and DHA-derived oxylipins as well as parent PUFA levels in plasma phospholipids were hardly changed.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

Our findings demonstrate that a single dose of LC n-3 PUFAs can rapidly induce a shift in the EPA oxylipin profile of healthy subjects within a few hours. Taking the high biological activity of the EPA-derived epoxy fatty acids into account, even short-term treatment with LC n-3 PUFAs may cause systemic effects, which warrant further investigation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz University of Hannover, Germany. Electronic address: Schuchardt@nutrition.uni-hannover.de.Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz University of Hannover, Germany.Institute for Food Toxicology and Analytical Chemistry, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany.Department of Entomology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.Department of Entomology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz University of Hannover, Germany.Institute for Food Toxicology and Analytical Chemistry, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany.

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24667634

Citation

Schuchardt, Jan Philipp, et al. "Increase of EPA-derived Hydroxy, Epoxy and Dihydroxy Fatty Acid Levels in Human Plasma After a Single Dose of Long-chain Omega-3 PUFA." Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, vol. 109-111, 2014, pp. 23-31.
Schuchardt JP, Schneider I, Willenberg I, et al. Increase of EPA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acid levels in human plasma after a single dose of long-chain omega-3 PUFA. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2014;109-111:23-31.
Schuchardt, J. P., Schneider, I., Willenberg, I., Yang, J., Hammock, B. D., Hahn, A., & Schebb, N. H. (2014). Increase of EPA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acid levels in human plasma after a single dose of long-chain omega-3 PUFA. Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, 109-111, pp. 23-31. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2014.03.001.
Schuchardt JP, et al. Increase of EPA-derived Hydroxy, Epoxy and Dihydroxy Fatty Acid Levels in Human Plasma After a Single Dose of Long-chain Omega-3 PUFA. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2014;109-111:23-31. PubMed PMID: 24667634.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Increase of EPA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acid levels in human plasma after a single dose of long-chain omega-3 PUFA. AU - Schuchardt,Jan Philipp, AU - Schneider,Inga, AU - Willenberg,Ina, AU - Yang,Jun, AU - Hammock,Bruce D, AU - Hahn,Andreas, AU - Schebb,Nils Helge, Y1 - 2014/03/22/ PY - 2013/12/09/received PY - 2014/02/25/revised PY - 2014/03/13/accepted PY - 2014/3/27/entrez PY - 2014/3/29/pubmed PY - 2015/1/8/medline KW - Arachidonic acid KW - Eicosanoids KW - Eicosapentaenoic acid KW - Oxylipins SP - 23 EP - 31 JF - Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators JO - Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. VL - 109-111 N2 - INTRODUCTION: Several supplementation studies with long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) describe an increase of EPA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids in blood, while changes in levels of other LC n-3 and n-6 PUFA-derived oxylipins were minor. In order to investigate the kinetics of changes in oxylipin levels in response to LC n-3 PUFA ingestion, we conducted a single dose treatment study with healthy subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In the present kinetic study, we compared patterns of hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids in plasma of 6 healthy men before and after 6, 8, 24, and 48h of fish oil (1008mg EPA and 672mg DHA) ingestion. Levels of EPA- as well as other LC PUFA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids were analyzed in plasma by LC-MS. Additionally, levels of these oxylipins were compared with their parent PUFA levels in plasma phospholipids. RESULTS: All EPA-derived oxylipin levels were significantly increased 6h after LC n-3 PUFA ingestion and gradually drop thereafter reaching the baseline levels about 48h after treatment. The relative increase in EPA plasma phospholipid levels highly correlated with the increase of plasma EPA-derived oxylipin levels at different time points. In contrast, plasma levels of arachidonic acid- and DHA-derived oxylipins as well as parent PUFA levels in plasma phospholipids were hardly changed. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that a single dose of LC n-3 PUFAs can rapidly induce a shift in the EPA oxylipin profile of healthy subjects within a few hours. Taking the high biological activity of the EPA-derived epoxy fatty acids into account, even short-term treatment with LC n-3 PUFAs may cause systemic effects, which warrant further investigation. SN - 1098-8823 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24667634/Increase_of_EPA_derived_hydroxy_epoxy_and_dihydroxy_fatty_acid_levels_in_human_plasma_after_a_single_dose_of_long_chain_omega_3_PUFA_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1098-8823(14)00005-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -