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Effects of supplementing n-3 fatty acid enriched eggs and walnuts on cardiovascular disease risk markers in healthy free-living lacto-ovo-vegetarians: a randomized, crossover, free-living intervention study.
Nutr J. 2014 Mar 27; 13:29.NJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Plant and marine n-3 fatty acids (FA) may favorably modify select markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Whether supplementing the habitual diet of lacto-ovo-vegetarians (LOV) with walnuts (containing α-linolenic acid, ALA) and n-3 FA enriched eggs (containing primarily docosahexaenoic acid, DHA and ALA) would have equivalent effects on CVD risk factors is explored in this study.

METHODS

In this study, 20 healthy free-living LOVs following their habitual diet were randomly assigned in a crossover design to receive one of three supplements: n-3 FA enriched egg (6/week), walnuts (28.4 g, 6/week) or a standard egg, 6/week (control) for 8 weeks each with 4-wk washout between treatments. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids, serum lipids and inflammatory markers were measured at the end of each treatment.

RESULTS

Dietary compliance was observed by an expected increase in erythrocyte membrane ALA following the walnut treatment and in DHA following the n-3 FA enriched egg treatment. Walnut treatment lowered serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and Apo B (p < 0.05) compared to the standard egg but not the n-3 FA enriched egg treatment. However, walnut treatment significantly reduced total: HDL cholesterol ratio compared to both egg treatments. There were no differences between treatments for any of the inflammatory markers.

CONCLUSIONS

For LOV, a direct source of DHA such as n-3 FA enriched eggs seems necessary to increase membrane levels of DHA. However for producing an overall favorable blood lipid profile, daily consumption of a handful of walnuts rich in ALA may be a preferred option for lacto-ovo vegetarian.

Authors+Show Affiliations

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableDepartment of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA. srajaram@llu.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24673793

Citation

Burns-Whitmore, Bonny, et al. "Effects of Supplementing N-3 Fatty Acid Enriched Eggs and Walnuts On Cardiovascular Disease Risk Markers in Healthy Free-living Lacto-ovo-vegetarians: a Randomized, Crossover, Free-living Intervention Study." Nutrition Journal, vol. 13, 2014, p. 29.
Burns-Whitmore B, Haddad E, Sabaté J, et al. Effects of supplementing n-3 fatty acid enriched eggs and walnuts on cardiovascular disease risk markers in healthy free-living lacto-ovo-vegetarians: a randomized, crossover, free-living intervention study. Nutr J. 2014;13:29.
Burns-Whitmore, B., Haddad, E., Sabaté, J., & Rajaram, S. (2014). Effects of supplementing n-3 fatty acid enriched eggs and walnuts on cardiovascular disease risk markers in healthy free-living lacto-ovo-vegetarians: a randomized, crossover, free-living intervention study. Nutrition Journal, 13, 29. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-13-29
Burns-Whitmore B, et al. Effects of Supplementing N-3 Fatty Acid Enriched Eggs and Walnuts On Cardiovascular Disease Risk Markers in Healthy Free-living Lacto-ovo-vegetarians: a Randomized, Crossover, Free-living Intervention Study. Nutr J. 2014 Mar 27;13:29. PubMed PMID: 24673793.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of supplementing n-3 fatty acid enriched eggs and walnuts on cardiovascular disease risk markers in healthy free-living lacto-ovo-vegetarians: a randomized, crossover, free-living intervention study. AU - Burns-Whitmore,Bonny, AU - Haddad,Ella, AU - Sabaté,Joan, AU - Rajaram,Sujatha, Y1 - 2014/03/27/ PY - 2013/09/27/received PY - 2014/03/18/accepted PY - 2014/3/29/entrez PY - 2014/3/29/pubmed PY - 2015/1/13/medline SP - 29 EP - 29 JF - Nutrition journal JO - Nutr J VL - 13 N2 - BACKGROUND: Plant and marine n-3 fatty acids (FA) may favorably modify select markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Whether supplementing the habitual diet of lacto-ovo-vegetarians (LOV) with walnuts (containing α-linolenic acid, ALA) and n-3 FA enriched eggs (containing primarily docosahexaenoic acid, DHA and ALA) would have equivalent effects on CVD risk factors is explored in this study. METHODS: In this study, 20 healthy free-living LOVs following their habitual diet were randomly assigned in a crossover design to receive one of three supplements: n-3 FA enriched egg (6/week), walnuts (28.4 g, 6/week) or a standard egg, 6/week (control) for 8 weeks each with 4-wk washout between treatments. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids, serum lipids and inflammatory markers were measured at the end of each treatment. RESULTS: Dietary compliance was observed by an expected increase in erythrocyte membrane ALA following the walnut treatment and in DHA following the n-3 FA enriched egg treatment. Walnut treatment lowered serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and Apo B (p < 0.05) compared to the standard egg but not the n-3 FA enriched egg treatment. However, walnut treatment significantly reduced total: HDL cholesterol ratio compared to both egg treatments. There were no differences between treatments for any of the inflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: For LOV, a direct source of DHA such as n-3 FA enriched eggs seems necessary to increase membrane levels of DHA. However for producing an overall favorable blood lipid profile, daily consumption of a handful of walnuts rich in ALA may be a preferred option for lacto-ovo vegetarian. SN - 1475-2891 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24673793/Effects_of_supplementing_n_3_fatty_acid_enriched_eggs_and_walnuts_on_cardiovascular_disease_risk_markers_in_healthy_free_living_lacto_ovo_vegetarians:_a_randomized_crossover_free_living_intervention_study_ L2 - https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2891-13-29 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -