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Weight loss maintenance in overweight subjects on ad libitum diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index: the DIOGENES trial 12-month results.
Int J Obes (Lond). 2014 Dec; 38(12):1511-7.IJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

A high dietary protein (P) content and low glycemic index (LGI) have been suggested to be beneficial for weight management, but long-term studies are scarce.

OBJECTIVE

The DIOGENES randomized clinical trial investigated the effect of P and GI on weight loss maintenance in overweight or obese adults in eight centers across Europe. This study reports the 1-year results in two of the centers that extended the intervention to 1 year.

METHOD

After an 8-week low-calorie diet (LCD), 256 adults (body mass index >27 kg m(-)(2)) were randomized to five ad libitum diets for 12 months: high P/LGI (HP/LGI), HP/high GI (HP/HGI), low P/LGI (LP/LGI), LP/HGI and a control diet. During the first 6 months, foods were provided for free through a shop system and during the whole 12-month period, subjects received guidance by a dietician. Primary outcome variable was the change in body weight over the 12-month intervention period.

RESULTS

During the LCD period, subjects lost 11.2 (10.8, 12.0) kg (mean (95% confidence interval (CI))). Average weight regain over the 12-month intervention period was 3.9 (95% CI 3.0-4.8) kg. Subjects on the HP diets regained less weight than subjects on the LP diets. The difference in weight regain after 1 year was 2.0 (0.4, 3.6) kg (P=0.017) (completers analysis, N=139) or 2.8 (1.4, 4.1) kg (P<0.001) (intention-to-treat analysis, N=256). No consistent effect of GI on weight regain was found. There were no clinically relevant differences in changes in cardiometabolic risk factors among diet groups.

CONCLUSION

A higher protein content of an ad libitum diet improves weight loss maintenance in overweight and obese adults over 12 months.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports (NEXS), Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.Institute of Preventive Medicine, Centre for Health and Society, Copenhagen, Denmark.MRC Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Cambridge, UK.Department of Social Medicine, Preventive Medicine & Nutrition Clinic, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.Department of Clinical Nutrition, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Nuhetal, Germany.1] Department of Physiology and Nutrition, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain [2] CIBERObn, Instituto Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.National Multiprofile Transport Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria.Obesity Management Centre, Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic.Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Gentofte University Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark.Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports (NEXS), Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24675714

Citation

Aller, E E J G., et al. "Weight Loss Maintenance in Overweight Subjects On Ad Libitum Diets With High or Low Protein Content and Glycemic Index: the DIOGENES Trial 12-month Results." International Journal of Obesity (2005), vol. 38, no. 12, 2014, pp. 1511-7.
Aller EE, Larsen TM, Claus H, et al. Weight loss maintenance in overweight subjects on ad libitum diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index: the DIOGENES trial 12-month results. Int J Obes (Lond). 2014;38(12):1511-7.
Aller, E. E., Larsen, T. M., Claus, H., Lindroos, A. K., Kafatos, A., Pfeiffer, A., Martinez, J. A., Handjieva-Darlenska, T., Kunesova, M., Stender, S., Saris, W. H., Astrup, A., & van Baak, M. A. (2014). Weight loss maintenance in overweight subjects on ad libitum diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index: the DIOGENES trial 12-month results. International Journal of Obesity (2005), 38(12), 1511-7. https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2014.52
Aller EE, et al. Weight Loss Maintenance in Overweight Subjects On Ad Libitum Diets With High or Low Protein Content and Glycemic Index: the DIOGENES Trial 12-month Results. Int J Obes (Lond). 2014;38(12):1511-7. PubMed PMID: 24675714.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Weight loss maintenance in overweight subjects on ad libitum diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index: the DIOGENES trial 12-month results. AU - Aller,E E J G, AU - Larsen,T M, AU - Claus,H, AU - Lindroos,A K, AU - Kafatos,A, AU - Pfeiffer,A, AU - Martinez,J A, AU - Handjieva-Darlenska,T, AU - Kunesova,M, AU - Stender,S, AU - Saris,W H M, AU - Astrup,A, AU - van Baak,M A, Y1 - 2014/03/28/ PY - 2013/10/30/received PY - 2014/02/26/revised PY - 2014/03/17/accepted PY - 2014/3/29/entrez PY - 2014/3/29/pubmed PY - 2015/8/5/medline SP - 1511 EP - 7 JF - International journal of obesity (2005) JO - Int J Obes (Lond) VL - 38 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: A high dietary protein (P) content and low glycemic index (LGI) have been suggested to be beneficial for weight management, but long-term studies are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The DIOGENES randomized clinical trial investigated the effect of P and GI on weight loss maintenance in overweight or obese adults in eight centers across Europe. This study reports the 1-year results in two of the centers that extended the intervention to 1 year. METHOD: After an 8-week low-calorie diet (LCD), 256 adults (body mass index >27 kg m(-)(2)) were randomized to five ad libitum diets for 12 months: high P/LGI (HP/LGI), HP/high GI (HP/HGI), low P/LGI (LP/LGI), LP/HGI and a control diet. During the first 6 months, foods were provided for free through a shop system and during the whole 12-month period, subjects received guidance by a dietician. Primary outcome variable was the change in body weight over the 12-month intervention period. RESULTS: During the LCD period, subjects lost 11.2 (10.8, 12.0) kg (mean (95% confidence interval (CI))). Average weight regain over the 12-month intervention period was 3.9 (95% CI 3.0-4.8) kg. Subjects on the HP diets regained less weight than subjects on the LP diets. The difference in weight regain after 1 year was 2.0 (0.4, 3.6) kg (P=0.017) (completers analysis, N=139) or 2.8 (1.4, 4.1) kg (P<0.001) (intention-to-treat analysis, N=256). No consistent effect of GI on weight regain was found. There were no clinically relevant differences in changes in cardiometabolic risk factors among diet groups. CONCLUSION: A higher protein content of an ad libitum diet improves weight loss maintenance in overweight and obese adults over 12 months. SN - 1476-5497 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24675714/Weight_loss_maintenance_in_overweight_subjects_on_ad_libitum_diets_with_high_or_low_protein_content_and_glycemic_index:_the_DIOGENES_trial_12_month_results_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2014.52 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -