Screening for depression in people with epilepsy: comparative study among neurological disorders depression inventory for epilepsy (NDDI-E), hospital anxiety and depression scale depression subscale (HADS-D), and Beck depression inventory (BDI).Epilepsy Behav. 2014 May; 34:50-4.EB
We aimed to assess and compare the psychometric properties of the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDI-E), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Depression Subscale (HADS-D), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) as screening instruments for depression and suicidality in people with epilepsy.
One hundred twenty-six people (54% women) diagnosed with epilepsy were recruited and evaluated on their sociodemographic and clinical features. Depression and suicide risk were assessed with a structured psychiatric interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus), and the performance of NDDI-E, HADS-D, and BDI was evaluated.
The sensitivity and specificity of BDI for the diagnosis of depression was around 90%; HADS-D and NDDI-E have sensitivity higher than 80%, and specificity was greater than 75%. For identifying suicide risk, the NDDI-E sensitivity was 92.9%, and HADS-D sensitivity was 85.7%, and a reasonable specificity (68%) was observed for both instruments. All instruments showed a negative predictive value of over 90%. Comparisons of the areas under the ROC curve for these instruments were not significantly different regarding depression or moderate/severe risk of suicide.
All three instruments evaluated have clinical utility in the screening of depression in people with epilepsy. Both NDDI-E and HADS-D are brief efficient screening instruments to identify depression in people with epilepsy. The BDI is a more robust instrument, but it takes longer to apply, which hampers its use by busy clinicians and by people with cognitive impairment.