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Modes of physiologic H2S signaling in the brain and peripheral tissues.
Antioxid Redox Signal. 2015 Feb 10; 22(5):411-23.AR

Abstract

SIGNIFICANCE

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), once associated with rotten eggs and sewers, is now recognized as a gasotransmitter that is synthesized in vivo in a regulated fashion. This ancient gaseous molecule has been retained throughout evolution to perform various roles in different life forms. H2S modulates important signaling functions in diverse cellular processes ranging from regulation of blood pressure to redox homeostasis.

RECENT ADVANCES

One of the modes by which H2S signals is by post-translational modification of reactive cysteine residues in a process designated as sulfhydration, resulting in conversion of the -SH groups of target cysteine residues to -SSH. Using the modified biotin-switch assay and a fluorescent maleimide-based analysis, sulfhydration of several proteins has been detected in various cell types. Aberrant sulfhydration patterns occur in neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease.

CRITICAL ISSUES

The exact concentration, source of H2S, and conditions under which various stores of H2S are utilized have not been fully elucidated. Currently, available inhibitors of the biosynthetic enzymes of H2S lack sufficient specificity to shed light on detailed mechanisms of H2S action. Probes with a higher sensitivity that can reliably detect cellular and tissue H2S levels are yet to be developed.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS

Availability of advanced probes and biosynthesis inhibitors would help in the measurement of real-time changes of endogenous H2S levels in an in vivo context. The study of the dynamics of sulfhydration and nitrosylation of critical cysteine residues of regulatory proteins involved in physiology and pathophysiology is an area of interest for the future.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1 The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine , Baltimore, Maryland.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24684551

Citation

Paul, Bindu D., and Solomon H. Snyder. "Modes of Physiologic H2S Signaling in the Brain and Peripheral Tissues." Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, vol. 22, no. 5, 2015, pp. 411-23.
Paul BD, Snyder SH. Modes of physiologic H2S signaling in the brain and peripheral tissues. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2015;22(5):411-23.
Paul, B. D., & Snyder, S. H. (2015). Modes of physiologic H2S signaling in the brain and peripheral tissues. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 22(5), 411-23. https://doi.org/10.1089/ars.2014.5917
Paul BD, Snyder SH. Modes of Physiologic H2S Signaling in the Brain and Peripheral Tissues. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2015 Feb 10;22(5):411-23. PubMed PMID: 24684551.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Modes of physiologic H2S signaling in the brain and peripheral tissues. AU - Paul,Bindu D, AU - Snyder,Solomon H, Y1 - 2014/05/09/ PY - 2014/4/2/entrez PY - 2014/4/2/pubmed PY - 2015/11/18/medline SP - 411 EP - 23 JF - Antioxidants & redox signaling JO - Antioxid. Redox Signal. VL - 22 IS - 5 N2 - SIGNIFICANCE: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), once associated with rotten eggs and sewers, is now recognized as a gasotransmitter that is synthesized in vivo in a regulated fashion. This ancient gaseous molecule has been retained throughout evolution to perform various roles in different life forms. H2S modulates important signaling functions in diverse cellular processes ranging from regulation of blood pressure to redox homeostasis. RECENT ADVANCES: One of the modes by which H2S signals is by post-translational modification of reactive cysteine residues in a process designated as sulfhydration, resulting in conversion of the -SH groups of target cysteine residues to -SSH. Using the modified biotin-switch assay and a fluorescent maleimide-based analysis, sulfhydration of several proteins has been detected in various cell types. Aberrant sulfhydration patterns occur in neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease. CRITICAL ISSUES: The exact concentration, source of H2S, and conditions under which various stores of H2S are utilized have not been fully elucidated. Currently, available inhibitors of the biosynthetic enzymes of H2S lack sufficient specificity to shed light on detailed mechanisms of H2S action. Probes with a higher sensitivity that can reliably detect cellular and tissue H2S levels are yet to be developed. FUTURE DIRECTIONS: Availability of advanced probes and biosynthesis inhibitors would help in the measurement of real-time changes of endogenous H2S levels in an in vivo context. The study of the dynamics of sulfhydration and nitrosylation of critical cysteine residues of regulatory proteins involved in physiology and pathophysiology is an area of interest for the future. SN - 1557-7716 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24684551/Modes_of_physiologic_H2S_signaling_in_the_brain_and_peripheral_tissues_ L2 - https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/ars.2014.5917?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -