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Occurrence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora in influent and effluent water at wastewater treatment plants in Arizona.
Sci Total Environ. 2014 Jun 15; 484:129-36.ST

Abstract

We investigated the occurrence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora at two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Arizona over a 12-month period, from August 2011 to July 2012. Influent and effluent wastewater samples were collected monthly, and protozoan (oo)cysts were concentrated using an electronegative filter, followed by the detection of protozoa using fluorescent microscopy (Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts) and PCR-based methods (Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, and Cyclospora cayetanensis). The concentration of Giardia cysts in the influent was always higher than that of Cryptosporidium oocysts (mean concentration of 4.8-6.4×10(3) versus 7.4×10(1)-1.0×10(2)(oo)cysts/l) with no clear seasonality, and log10 reduction of Giardia cysts was significantly higher than that of Cryptosporidium oocysts for both WWTPs (P<0.05). Log10 reduction of Giardia cysts at the WWTP utilizing activated sludge was significantly higher than the other WWTP using trickling filter (P=0.014), while no statistically significant difference between the two WWTPs was observed for the log10 reduction of Cryptosporidium oocysts (P=0.207). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that G. intestinalis strains identified in wastewater belonged to two assemblages, AII and B, which are potentially infectious to humans. C. cayetanensis was also detected from both influent and effluent using a newly developed quantitative PCR, with the highest influent concentration of 1.2×10(4)copies/l. Our results demonstrated that these protozoan pathogens are prevalent in the study area and that efficacy of the conventional wastewater treatment processes at physically removing (oo)cysts is limited.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. Electronic address: kitajima@smart.mit.edu.International Research Center for River Basin Environment, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan. Electronic address: eharamoto@yamanashi.ac.jp.Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. Electronic address: ikerb@email.arizona.edu.Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. Electronic address: gerba@ag.arizona.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24695096

Citation

Kitajima, Masaaki, et al. "Occurrence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora in Influent and Effluent Water at Wastewater Treatment Plants in Arizona." The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 484, 2014, pp. 129-36.
Kitajima M, Haramoto E, Iker BC, et al. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora in influent and effluent water at wastewater treatment plants in Arizona. Sci Total Environ. 2014;484:129-36.
Kitajima, M., Haramoto, E., Iker, B. C., & Gerba, C. P. (2014). Occurrence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora in influent and effluent water at wastewater treatment plants in Arizona. The Science of the Total Environment, 484, 129-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.03.036
Kitajima M, et al. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora in Influent and Effluent Water at Wastewater Treatment Plants in Arizona. Sci Total Environ. 2014 Jun 15;484:129-36. PubMed PMID: 24695096.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Occurrence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora in influent and effluent water at wastewater treatment plants in Arizona. AU - Kitajima,Masaaki, AU - Haramoto,Eiji, AU - Iker,Brandon C, AU - Gerba,Charles P, Y1 - 2014/03/31/ PY - 2013/12/30/received PY - 2014/03/09/revised PY - 2014/03/09/accepted PY - 2014/4/4/entrez PY - 2014/4/4/pubmed PY - 2015/10/1/medline KW - PCR KW - Phylogenetic analysis KW - Protozoa KW - Removal KW - SYBR Green KW - Wastewater SP - 129 EP - 36 JF - The Science of the total environment JO - Sci Total Environ VL - 484 N2 - We investigated the occurrence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora at two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Arizona over a 12-month period, from August 2011 to July 2012. Influent and effluent wastewater samples were collected monthly, and protozoan (oo)cysts were concentrated using an electronegative filter, followed by the detection of protozoa using fluorescent microscopy (Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts) and PCR-based methods (Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, and Cyclospora cayetanensis). The concentration of Giardia cysts in the influent was always higher than that of Cryptosporidium oocysts (mean concentration of 4.8-6.4×10(3) versus 7.4×10(1)-1.0×10(2)(oo)cysts/l) with no clear seasonality, and log10 reduction of Giardia cysts was significantly higher than that of Cryptosporidium oocysts for both WWTPs (P<0.05). Log10 reduction of Giardia cysts at the WWTP utilizing activated sludge was significantly higher than the other WWTP using trickling filter (P=0.014), while no statistically significant difference between the two WWTPs was observed for the log10 reduction of Cryptosporidium oocysts (P=0.207). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that G. intestinalis strains identified in wastewater belonged to two assemblages, AII and B, which are potentially infectious to humans. C. cayetanensis was also detected from both influent and effluent using a newly developed quantitative PCR, with the highest influent concentration of 1.2×10(4)copies/l. Our results demonstrated that these protozoan pathogens are prevalent in the study area and that efficacy of the conventional wastewater treatment processes at physically removing (oo)cysts is limited. SN - 1879-1026 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24695096/Occurrence_of_Cryptosporidium_Giardia_and_Cyclospora_in_influent_and_effluent_water_at_wastewater_treatment_plants_in_Arizona_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -