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Community case clusters of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Hafr Al-Batin, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a descriptive genomic study.
Int J Infect Dis. 2014 Jun; 23:63-8.IJ

Abstract

The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first described in September 2012 and to date 86 deaths from a total of 206 cases of MERS-CoV infection have been reported to the WHO. Camels have been implicated as the reservoir of MERS-CoV, but the exact source and mode of transmission for most patients remain unknown. During a 3 month period, June to August 2013, there were 12 positive MERS-CoV cases reported from the Hafr Al-Batin region district in the north east region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition to the different regional camel festivals in neighboring countries, Hafr Al-Batin has the biggest camel market in the entire Kingdom and hosts an annual camel festival. Thus, we conducted a detailed epidemiological, clinical and genomic study to ascertain common exposure and transmission patterns of all cases of MERS-CoV reported from Hafr Al-Batin. Analysis of previously reported genetic data indicated that at least two of the infected contacts could not have been directly infected from the index patient and alternate source should be considered. While camels appear as the likely source, other sources have not been ruled out. More detailed case control studies with detailed case histories, epidemiological information and genomic analysis are being conducted to delineate the missing pieces in the transmission dynamics of MERS-CoV outbreak.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Global Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine (GCMGM), Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA); College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Electronic address: zmemish@yahoo.com.Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, United Kingdom.Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, United Kingdom.Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, United Kingdom; Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, and UCL Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, and UCL Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.Global Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine (GCMGM), Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).Global Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine (GCMGM), Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).Global Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine (GCMGM), Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization, Saudi Aramco, Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (USA).

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24699184

Citation

Memish, Ziad A., et al. "Community Case Clusters of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Hafr Al-Batin, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a Descriptive Genomic Study." International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, vol. 23, 2014, pp. 63-8.
Memish ZA, Cotten M, Watson SJ, et al. Community case clusters of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Hafr Al-Batin, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a descriptive genomic study. Int J Infect Dis. 2014;23:63-8.
Memish, Z. A., Cotten, M., Watson, S. J., Kellam, P., Zumla, A., Alhakeem, R. F., Assiri, A., Rabeeah, A. A., & Al-Tawfiq, J. A. (2014). Community case clusters of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Hafr Al-Batin, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a descriptive genomic study. International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, 23, 63-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2014.03.1372
Memish ZA, et al. Community Case Clusters of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Hafr Al-Batin, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a Descriptive Genomic Study. Int J Infect Dis. 2014;23:63-8. PubMed PMID: 24699184.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Community case clusters of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Hafr Al-Batin, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a descriptive genomic study. AU - Memish,Ziad A, AU - Cotten,Matthew, AU - Watson,Simon J, AU - Kellam,Paul, AU - Zumla,Alimuddin, AU - Alhakeem,Rafat F, AU - Assiri,Abdullah, AU - Rabeeah,Abdullah A Al, AU - Al-Tawfiq,Jaffar A, Y1 - 2014/03/31/ PY - 2014/4/5/entrez PY - 2014/4/5/pubmed PY - 2015/1/21/medline KW - Clusters KW - Community KW - Coronavirus KW - Genome KW - MERS-CoV KW - Middle East KW - Phylogeny KW - Virus transmission SP - 63 EP - 8 JF - International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases JO - Int J Infect Dis VL - 23 N2 - The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first described in September 2012 and to date 86 deaths from a total of 206 cases of MERS-CoV infection have been reported to the WHO. Camels have been implicated as the reservoir of MERS-CoV, but the exact source and mode of transmission for most patients remain unknown. During a 3 month period, June to August 2013, there were 12 positive MERS-CoV cases reported from the Hafr Al-Batin region district in the north east region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition to the different regional camel festivals in neighboring countries, Hafr Al-Batin has the biggest camel market in the entire Kingdom and hosts an annual camel festival. Thus, we conducted a detailed epidemiological, clinical and genomic study to ascertain common exposure and transmission patterns of all cases of MERS-CoV reported from Hafr Al-Batin. Analysis of previously reported genetic data indicated that at least two of the infected contacts could not have been directly infected from the index patient and alternate source should be considered. While camels appear as the likely source, other sources have not been ruled out. More detailed case control studies with detailed case histories, epidemiological information and genomic analysis are being conducted to delineate the missing pieces in the transmission dynamics of MERS-CoV outbreak. SN - 1878-3511 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24699184/Community_case_clusters_of_Middle_East_respiratory_syndrome_coronavirus_in_Hafr_Al_Batin_Kingdom_of_Saudi_Arabia:_a_descriptive_genomic_study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1201-9712(14)01451-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -