Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Amorphous metal-organic frameworks.
Acc Chem Res 2014; 47(5):1555-62AC

Abstract

Crystalline metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous frameworks comprising an infinite array of metal nodes connected by organic linkers. The number of novel MOF structures reported per year is now in excess of 6000, despite significant increases in the complexity of both component units and molecular networks. Their regularly repeating structures give rise to chemically variable porous architectures, which have been studied extensively due to their sorption and separation potential. More recently, catalytic applications have been proposed that make use of their chemical tunability, while reports of negative linear compressibility and negative thermal expansion have further expanded interest in the field. Amorphous metal-organic frameworks (aMOFs) retain the basic building blocks and connectivity of their crystalline counterparts, though they lack any long-range periodic order. Aperiodic arrangements of atoms result in their X-ray diffraction patterns being dominated by broad "humps" caused by diffuse scattering and thus they are largely indistinguishable from one another. Amorphous MOFs offer many exciting opportunities for practical application, either as novel functional materials themselves or facilitating other processes, though the domain is largely unexplored (total aMOF reported structures amounting to under 30). Specifically, the use of crystalline MOFs to detect harmful guest species before subsequent stress-induced collapse and guest immobilization is of considerable interest, while functional luminescent and optically active glass-like materials may also be prepared in this manner. The ion transporting capacity of crystalline MOFs might be improved during partial structural collapse, while there are possibilities of preparing superstrong glasses and hybrid liquids during thermal amorphization. The tuning of release times of MOF drug delivery vehicles by partial structural collapse may be possible, and aMOFs are often more mechanically robust than crystalline materials, which is of importance for industrial applications. In this Account, we describe the preparation of aMOFs by introduction of disorder into their parent crystalline frameworks through heating, pressure (both hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic), and ball-milling. The main method of characterizing these amorphous materials (analysis of the pair distribution function) is summarized, alongside complementary techniques such as Raman spectroscopy. Detailed investigations into their properties (both chemical and mechanical) are compiled and compared with those of crystalline MOFs, while the impact of the field on the processing techniques used for crystalline MOF powders is also assessed. Crucially, the benefits amorphization may bring to existing proposed MOF applications are detailed, alongside the possibilities and research directions afforded by the combination of the unique properties of the amorphous domain with the versatility of MOF chemistry.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge , 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS, United Kingdom.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24707980

Citation

Bennett, Thomas D., and Anthony K. Cheetham. "Amorphous Metal-organic Frameworks." Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 47, no. 5, 2014, pp. 1555-62.
Bennett TD, Cheetham AK. Amorphous metal-organic frameworks. Acc Chem Res. 2014;47(5):1555-62.
Bennett, T. D., & Cheetham, A. K. (2014). Amorphous metal-organic frameworks. Accounts of Chemical Research, 47(5), pp. 1555-62. doi:10.1021/ar5000314.
Bennett TD, Cheetham AK. Amorphous Metal-organic Frameworks. Acc Chem Res. 2014 May 20;47(5):1555-62. PubMed PMID: 24707980.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Amorphous metal-organic frameworks. AU - Bennett,Thomas D, AU - Cheetham,Anthony K, Y1 - 2014/04/07/ PY - 2014/4/9/entrez PY - 2014/4/9/pubmed PY - 2014/4/9/medline SP - 1555 EP - 62 JF - Accounts of chemical research JO - Acc. Chem. Res. VL - 47 IS - 5 N2 - Crystalline metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous frameworks comprising an infinite array of metal nodes connected by organic linkers. The number of novel MOF structures reported per year is now in excess of 6000, despite significant increases in the complexity of both component units and molecular networks. Their regularly repeating structures give rise to chemically variable porous architectures, which have been studied extensively due to their sorption and separation potential. More recently, catalytic applications have been proposed that make use of their chemical tunability, while reports of negative linear compressibility and negative thermal expansion have further expanded interest in the field. Amorphous metal-organic frameworks (aMOFs) retain the basic building blocks and connectivity of their crystalline counterparts, though they lack any long-range periodic order. Aperiodic arrangements of atoms result in their X-ray diffraction patterns being dominated by broad "humps" caused by diffuse scattering and thus they are largely indistinguishable from one another. Amorphous MOFs offer many exciting opportunities for practical application, either as novel functional materials themselves or facilitating other processes, though the domain is largely unexplored (total aMOF reported structures amounting to under 30). Specifically, the use of crystalline MOFs to detect harmful guest species before subsequent stress-induced collapse and guest immobilization is of considerable interest, while functional luminescent and optically active glass-like materials may also be prepared in this manner. The ion transporting capacity of crystalline MOFs might be improved during partial structural collapse, while there are possibilities of preparing superstrong glasses and hybrid liquids during thermal amorphization. The tuning of release times of MOF drug delivery vehicles by partial structural collapse may be possible, and aMOFs are often more mechanically robust than crystalline materials, which is of importance for industrial applications. In this Account, we describe the preparation of aMOFs by introduction of disorder into their parent crystalline frameworks through heating, pressure (both hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic), and ball-milling. The main method of characterizing these amorphous materials (analysis of the pair distribution function) is summarized, alongside complementary techniques such as Raman spectroscopy. Detailed investigations into their properties (both chemical and mechanical) are compiled and compared with those of crystalline MOFs, while the impact of the field on the processing techniques used for crystalline MOF powders is also assessed. Crucially, the benefits amorphization may bring to existing proposed MOF applications are detailed, alongside the possibilities and research directions afforded by the combination of the unique properties of the amorphous domain with the versatility of MOF chemistry. SN - 1520-4898 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24707980/Amorphous_metal_organic_frameworks_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ar5000314 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -