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Phthalate and bisphenol A exposure among pregnant women in Canada--results from the MIREC study.
Environ Int. 2014 Jul; 68:55-65.EI

Abstract

Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are endocrine disruptors possibly linked to adverse reproductive and neurodevelopmental outcomes. These chemicals have commonly been measured in urine in population surveys; however, such data are limited for large populations of pregnant women, especially for the critical first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the study was to measure BPA and phthalate metabolites in first trimester urine samples collected in a large national-scale pregnancy cohort study and to identify major predictors of exposure. Approximately 2000 women were recruited in the first trimester of pregnancy from ten sites across Canada. A questionnaire was administered to obtain demographic and socio-economic data on participants and a spot urine sample was collected and analyzed for total BPA (GC-MS/MS) and 11 phthalate metabolites (LC-MS/MS). The geometric mean (GM) maternal urinary concentration of total BPA, uncorrected for specific gravity, was 0.80 (95% CI 0.76-0.85) μg/L. Almost 88% of the women had detectable urinary concentrations of BPA. An analysis of urinary concentrations of BPA by maternal characteristics with specific gravity as a covariate in the linear model showed that the geometric mean concentrations: (1) decreased with increasing maternal age, (2) were higher in current smokers or women who quit during pregnancy compared to never smokers, and (3) tended to be higher in women who provided a fasting urine sample and who were born in Canada, and had lower incomes and education. Several of the phthalate metabolites analyzed were not prevalent in this population (MCHP, MMP, MiNP, MOP), with percentages detectable at less than 15%. The phthalate metabolites with the highest measured concentrations were MEP (GM: 32.02 μg/L) and MnBP (GM: 11.59 μg/L). MBzP urinary concentrations decreased with maternal age but did not differ by time of urine collection; whereas the DEHP metabolites tended to be higher in older women and when the urine was collected later in the day. This study provides the first biomonitoring results for the largest population of pregnant women sampled in the first trimester of pregnancy. The results indicate that exposure among this population of pregnant women to these chemicals is comparable to or even lower than that observed in a Canadian national population-based survey.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Population Studies Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada. Electronic address: Tye.arbuckle@hc-sc.gc.ca.Population Studies Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada.Population Studies Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada.Population Studies Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada.Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada.Le Centre de Toxicologie du Québec, Institut nationale de Santé Publique Québec, Québec, Canada.Le Centre de Toxicologie du Québec, Institut nationale de Santé Publique Québec, Québec, Canada.Division of Reproductive Biology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.Population Studies Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada.Sainte Justine University Hospital Research Center, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24709781

Citation

Arbuckle, Tye E., et al. "Phthalate and Bisphenol a Exposure Among Pregnant Women in Canada--results From the MIREC Study." Environment International, vol. 68, 2014, pp. 55-65.
Arbuckle TE, Davis K, Marro L, et al. Phthalate and bisphenol A exposure among pregnant women in Canada--results from the MIREC study. Environ Int. 2014;68:55-65.
Arbuckle, T. E., Davis, K., Marro, L., Fisher, M., Legrand, M., LeBlanc, A., Gaudreau, E., Foster, W. G., Choeurng, V., & Fraser, W. D. (2014). Phthalate and bisphenol A exposure among pregnant women in Canada--results from the MIREC study. Environment International, 68, 55-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2014.02.010
Arbuckle TE, et al. Phthalate and Bisphenol a Exposure Among Pregnant Women in Canada--results From the MIREC Study. Environ Int. 2014;68:55-65. PubMed PMID: 24709781.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Phthalate and bisphenol A exposure among pregnant women in Canada--results from the MIREC study. AU - Arbuckle,Tye E, AU - Davis,Karelyn, AU - Marro,Leonora, AU - Fisher,Mandy, AU - Legrand,Melissa, AU - LeBlanc,Alain, AU - Gaudreau,Eric, AU - Foster,Warren G, AU - Choeurng,Voleak, AU - Fraser,William D, AU - ,, Y1 - 2014/04/04/ PY - 2013/12/10/received PY - 2014/01/23/revised PY - 2014/02/18/accepted PY - 2014/4/9/entrez PY - 2014/4/9/pubmed PY - 2014/9/23/medline KW - Biomonitoring KW - Bisphenol A KW - Phthalates KW - Pregnancy KW - Urine SP - 55 EP - 65 JF - Environment international JO - Environ Int VL - 68 N2 - Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are endocrine disruptors possibly linked to adverse reproductive and neurodevelopmental outcomes. These chemicals have commonly been measured in urine in population surveys; however, such data are limited for large populations of pregnant women, especially for the critical first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the study was to measure BPA and phthalate metabolites in first trimester urine samples collected in a large national-scale pregnancy cohort study and to identify major predictors of exposure. Approximately 2000 women were recruited in the first trimester of pregnancy from ten sites across Canada. A questionnaire was administered to obtain demographic and socio-economic data on participants and a spot urine sample was collected and analyzed for total BPA (GC-MS/MS) and 11 phthalate metabolites (LC-MS/MS). The geometric mean (GM) maternal urinary concentration of total BPA, uncorrected for specific gravity, was 0.80 (95% CI 0.76-0.85) μg/L. Almost 88% of the women had detectable urinary concentrations of BPA. An analysis of urinary concentrations of BPA by maternal characteristics with specific gravity as a covariate in the linear model showed that the geometric mean concentrations: (1) decreased with increasing maternal age, (2) were higher in current smokers or women who quit during pregnancy compared to never smokers, and (3) tended to be higher in women who provided a fasting urine sample and who were born in Canada, and had lower incomes and education. Several of the phthalate metabolites analyzed were not prevalent in this population (MCHP, MMP, MiNP, MOP), with percentages detectable at less than 15%. The phthalate metabolites with the highest measured concentrations were MEP (GM: 32.02 μg/L) and MnBP (GM: 11.59 μg/L). MBzP urinary concentrations decreased with maternal age but did not differ by time of urine collection; whereas the DEHP metabolites tended to be higher in older women and when the urine was collected later in the day. This study provides the first biomonitoring results for the largest population of pregnant women sampled in the first trimester of pregnancy. The results indicate that exposure among this population of pregnant women to these chemicals is comparable to or even lower than that observed in a Canadian national population-based survey. SN - 1873-6750 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24709781/Phthalate_and_bisphenol_A_exposure_among_pregnant_women_in_Canada__results_from_the_MIREC_study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0160-4120(14)00060-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -