Macrophage activation by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Priming for enhanced release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and prostaglandin E2.J Immunol. 1989 Aug 15; 143(4):1198-205.JI
The macrophage-activating properties of murine recombinant granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF were studied in murine peritoneal macrophages with respect to metabolism, endocytosis, PGE2 and TNF-alpha release, and tumor cytotoxicity. GM-CSF was found to be a potent stimulus for RNA and protein synthesis, glucose consumption, pinocytosis, and FcR-independent phagocytosis. Macrophages were activated by GM-CSF to kill TNF-alpha-insensitive Eb lymphoma cells but failed to generate cytotoxicity against TNF-alpha-sensitive L929 cells. Although GM-CSF alone was incapable of stimulating TNF-alpha release, it primed macrophages for elevated TNF-alpha production in response to IFN-gamma plus LPS. The priming effect of GM-CSF disappeared upon longer incubation (greater than 12 h) and was followed by a strongly reduced responsiveness to stimuli that release TNF-alpha. Late-stage suppression could be reverted by treatment with the cyclooxygenase blocker indomethacin, and GM-CSF-induced priming for enhanced TNF-alpha release was entirely restored. The responsible arachidonic acid product mediating suppression was found to be PGE2, because 1) GM-CSF-primed macrophages released enhanced amounts of PGE2 and 2) indomethacin-restored macrophages were again suppressed when exogenous PGE2 was added back in amounts produced by GM-CSF-primed macrophages. Although GM-CSF potently induced TNF-alpha gene transcription by 20 h of treatment, PGE2 interfered with translation into the secreted TNF-alpha protein. These data show that GM-CSF is capable of priming for the enhanced release of two factors, initially for TNF-alpha and subsequently for PGE2. The temporally delayed generation of these two mediators suggests an autoregulatory circuit in which the later produced PGE2 limits GM-CSF-induced macrophage activation.