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Role of methylglyoxal in Alzheimer's disease.
Alzheimer's disease is the most common and lethal neurodegenerative disorder. The major hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease are extracellular aggregation of amyloid β peptides and, the presence of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles formed by precipitation/aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. The etiology of Alzheimer's disease is multifactorial and a full understanding of its pathogenesis remains elusive. Some years ago, it has been suggested that glycation may contribute to both extensive protein cross-linking and oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease. Glycation is an endogenous process that leads to the production of a class of compounds known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Interestingly, increased levels of AGEs have been observed in brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. Methylglyoxal, a reactive intermediate of cellular metabolism, is the most potent precursor of AGEs and is strictly correlated with an increase of oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease. Many studies are showing that methylglyoxal and methylglyoxal-derived AGEs play a key role in the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.
Department for Life Quality Studies, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Corso d'Augusto 237, 47900 Rimini, Italy.,
Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna, Italy.
Department for Life Quality Studies, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Corso d'Augusto 237, 47900 Rimini, Italy.
Glycation End Products, Advanced
Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Pub Type(s)Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't