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TMS-EEG signatures of GABAergic neurotransmission in the human cortex.
J Neurosci 2014; 34(16):5603-12JN

Abstract

Combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) constitutes a powerful tool to directly assess human cortical excitability and connectivity. TMS of the primary motor cortex elicits a sequence of TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs). It is thought that inhibitory neurotransmission through GABA-A receptors (GABAAR) modulates early TEPs (<50 ms after TMS), whereas GABA-B receptors (GABABR) play a role for later TEPs (at ∼100 ms after TMS). However, the physiological underpinnings of TEPs have not been clearly elucidated yet. Here, we studied the role of GABAA/B-ergic neurotransmission for TEPs in healthy subjects using a pharmaco-TMS-EEG approach. In Experiment 1, we tested the effects of a single oral dose of alprazolam (a classical benzodiazepine acting as allosteric-positive modulator at α1, α2, α3, and α5 subunit-containing GABAARs) and zolpidem (a positive modulator mainly at the α1 GABAAR) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. In Experiment 2, we tested the influence of baclofen (a GABABR agonist) and diazepam (a classical benzodiazepine) versus placebo on TEPs. Alprazolam and diazepam increased the amplitude of the negative potential at 45 ms after stimulation (N45) and decreased the negative component at 100 ms (N100), whereas zolpidem increased the N45 only. In contrast, baclofen specifically increased the N100 amplitude. These results provide strong evidence that the N45 represents activity of α1-subunit-containing GABAARs, whereas the N100 represents activity of GABABRs. Findings open a novel window of opportunity to study alteration of GABAA-/GABAB-related inhibition in disorders, such as epilepsy or schizophrenia.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Neurology and Stroke, and Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, Eberhard-Karls-University Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany, International Max Planck Research School, 72076 Tübingen, Germany, Laboratory of Cognitive and Computational Neuroscience, Centre for Biomedical Technology, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28660 Madrid, Spain, School of Psychology, University of East London, E15 4LZ London, United Kingdom, Department of Neurophysiology, Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, 60528 Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Ernst Strüngmann Institute for Neuroscience in Cooperation with Max Planck Society, 60528 Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Functional and Restorative Neurosurgery, University Hospital Tübingen, Eberhard Karls University, 72076 Tübingen, Germany, and Department of Neurology, Goethe-University, 60528 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24741050

Citation

Premoli, Isabella, et al. "TMS-EEG Signatures of GABAergic Neurotransmission in the Human Cortex." The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, vol. 34, no. 16, 2014, pp. 5603-12.
Premoli I, Castellanos N, Rivolta D, et al. TMS-EEG signatures of GABAergic neurotransmission in the human cortex. J Neurosci. 2014;34(16):5603-12.
Premoli, I., Castellanos, N., Rivolta, D., Belardinelli, P., Bajo, R., Zipser, C., ... Ziemann, U. (2014). TMS-EEG signatures of GABAergic neurotransmission in the human cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 34(16), pp. 5603-12. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5089-13.2014.
Premoli I, et al. TMS-EEG Signatures of GABAergic Neurotransmission in the Human Cortex. J Neurosci. 2014 Apr 16;34(16):5603-12. PubMed PMID: 24741050.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - TMS-EEG signatures of GABAergic neurotransmission in the human cortex. AU - Premoli,Isabella, AU - Castellanos,Nazareth, AU - Rivolta,Davide, AU - Belardinelli,Paolo, AU - Bajo,Ricardo, AU - Zipser,Carl, AU - Espenhahn,Svenja, AU - Heidegger,Tonio, AU - Müller-Dahlhaus,Florian, AU - Ziemann,Ulf, PY - 2014/4/18/entrez PY - 2014/4/18/pubmed PY - 2014/6/7/medline KW - GABA KW - electroencephalography KW - human cortex KW - inhibition KW - pharmaco-TMS-EEG KW - transcranial magnetic stimulation SP - 5603 EP - 12 JF - The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience JO - J. Neurosci. VL - 34 IS - 16 N2 - Combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) constitutes a powerful tool to directly assess human cortical excitability and connectivity. TMS of the primary motor cortex elicits a sequence of TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs). It is thought that inhibitory neurotransmission through GABA-A receptors (GABAAR) modulates early TEPs (<50 ms after TMS), whereas GABA-B receptors (GABABR) play a role for later TEPs (at ∼100 ms after TMS). However, the physiological underpinnings of TEPs have not been clearly elucidated yet. Here, we studied the role of GABAA/B-ergic neurotransmission for TEPs in healthy subjects using a pharmaco-TMS-EEG approach. In Experiment 1, we tested the effects of a single oral dose of alprazolam (a classical benzodiazepine acting as allosteric-positive modulator at α1, α2, α3, and α5 subunit-containing GABAARs) and zolpidem (a positive modulator mainly at the α1 GABAAR) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. In Experiment 2, we tested the influence of baclofen (a GABABR agonist) and diazepam (a classical benzodiazepine) versus placebo on TEPs. Alprazolam and diazepam increased the amplitude of the negative potential at 45 ms after stimulation (N45) and decreased the negative component at 100 ms (N100), whereas zolpidem increased the N45 only. In contrast, baclofen specifically increased the N100 amplitude. These results provide strong evidence that the N45 represents activity of α1-subunit-containing GABAARs, whereas the N100 represents activity of GABABRs. Findings open a novel window of opportunity to study alteration of GABAA-/GABAB-related inhibition in disorders, such as epilepsy or schizophrenia. SN - 1529-2401 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24741050/TMS_EEG_signatures_of_GABAergic_neurotransmission_in_the_human_cortex_ L2 - http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=24741050 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -