Divalent cation dependence of the inhibition by phenothiazines of mediator release from mast cells.Br J Pharmacol. 1989 Jun; 97(2):547-55.BJ
1. The divalent cations calcium, strontium and barium--and in that order of decreasing effectiveness--were capable of supporting the stimulated release of histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC). 2. The responsiveness of mast cells to stimulation in the presence of divalent cations was, in general, markedly enhanced when the cells were first depleted of their intracellular calcium stores. 3. The putative calmodulin antagonists, chlorpromazine, promethazine, thioridazine (phenothiazines) and W-7 (a naphthalene sulphonamide) all inhibited histamine release in the presence of divalent cations in both untreated cells and in RPMC depleted of their intracellular calcium. 4. Histamine release induced by antigen, compound 48/80 and ionophore A23187 was inhibited by this class of compounds most effectively in the presence of extracellular barium, less so in the presence of strontium and least so in calcium-containing media. 5. In the experimental situation where the extracellular calcium concentration was reduced (less than 1 mM), the phenothiazines inhibited the stimulated release of histamine more effectively. 6. In toto, these results suggest that strontium and barium, as well as calcium, can support histamine release from RPMC by directly interacting with an intracellular divalent cation-binding site that may be calmodulin. As a consequence, one mechanism by which the phenothiazines and W-7 may modulate the secretory response could reflect an antagonism of a divalent cation interaction at that same site, although other additional potential sites of inhibitory action are indicated, dependent on the stimulus employed for secretion.