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Distribution and clinical manifestations of Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in HIV/AIDS patients in Ethiopia.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Apr; 8(4):e2831.PN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Cryptosporidiosis is an important cause for chronic diarrhea and death in HIV/AIDS patients. Among common Cryptosporidium species in humans, C. parvum is responsible for most zoonotic infections in industrialized nations. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of C. parvum and role of zoonotic transmission in cryptosporidiosis epidemiology in developing countries remain unclear.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS

In this cross-sectional study, 520 HIV/AIDS patients were examined for Cryptosporidium presence in stool samples using genotyping and subtyping techniques. Altogether, 140 (26.9%) patients were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. by PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene, belonging to C. parvum (92 patients), C. hominis (25 patients), C. viatorum (10 patients), C. felis (5 patients), C. meleagridis (3 patients), C. canis (2 patients), C. xiaoi (2 patients), and mixture of C. parvum and C. hominis (1 patient). Sequence analyses of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene revealed a high genetic diversity within the 82 C. parvum and 19 C. hominis specimens subtyped, including C. parvum zoonotic subtype families IIa (71) and IId (5) and anthroponotic subtype families IIc (2), IIb (1), IIe (1) and If-like (2), and C. hominis subtype families Id (13), Ie (5), and Ib (1). Overall, Cryptosporidium infection was associated with the occurrence of diarrhea and vomiting. Diarrhea was attributable mostly to C. parvum subtype family IIa and C. hominis, whereas vomiting was largely attributable to C. hominis and rare Cryptosporidium species. Calf contact was identified as a significant risk factor for infection with Cryptosporidium spp., especially C. parvum subtype family IIa.

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE

Results of the study indicate that C. parvum is a major cause of cryptosporidiosis in HIV-positive patients and zoonotic transmission is important in cryptosporidiosis epidemiology in Ethiopia. In addition, they confirm that different Cryptosporidium species and subtypes are linked to different clinical manifestations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America; Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.Department of Public and Allied Health, Bowling Green State University (BGSU), Bowling Green, Ohio, United States of America.Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America; Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kafr El sheikh University, Kafe El Sheikh, Egypt.Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America; State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24743521

Citation

Adamu, Haileeyesus, et al. "Distribution and Clinical Manifestations of Cryptosporidium Species and Subtypes in HIV/AIDS Patients in Ethiopia." PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 8, no. 4, 2014, pp. e2831.
Adamu H, Petros B, Zhang G, et al. Distribution and clinical manifestations of Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in HIV/AIDS patients in Ethiopia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8(4):e2831.
Adamu, H., Petros, B., Zhang, G., Kassa, H., Amer, S., Ye, J., Feng, Y., & Xiao, L. (2014). Distribution and clinical manifestations of Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in HIV/AIDS patients in Ethiopia. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 8(4), e2831. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002831
Adamu H, et al. Distribution and Clinical Manifestations of Cryptosporidium Species and Subtypes in HIV/AIDS Patients in Ethiopia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8(4):e2831. PubMed PMID: 24743521.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Distribution and clinical manifestations of Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in HIV/AIDS patients in Ethiopia. AU - Adamu,Haileeyesus, AU - Petros,Beyene, AU - Zhang,Guoqing, AU - Kassa,Hailu, AU - Amer,Said, AU - Ye,Jianbin, AU - Feng,Yaoyu, AU - Xiao,Lihua, Y1 - 2014/04/17/ PY - 2013/09/03/received PY - 2014/03/17/accepted PY - 2014/4/19/entrez PY - 2014/4/20/pubmed PY - 2014/10/31/medline SP - e2831 EP - e2831 JF - PLoS neglected tropical diseases JO - PLoS Negl Trop Dis VL - 8 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidiosis is an important cause for chronic diarrhea and death in HIV/AIDS patients. Among common Cryptosporidium species in humans, C. parvum is responsible for most zoonotic infections in industrialized nations. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of C. parvum and role of zoonotic transmission in cryptosporidiosis epidemiology in developing countries remain unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this cross-sectional study, 520 HIV/AIDS patients were examined for Cryptosporidium presence in stool samples using genotyping and subtyping techniques. Altogether, 140 (26.9%) patients were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. by PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene, belonging to C. parvum (92 patients), C. hominis (25 patients), C. viatorum (10 patients), C. felis (5 patients), C. meleagridis (3 patients), C. canis (2 patients), C. xiaoi (2 patients), and mixture of C. parvum and C. hominis (1 patient). Sequence analyses of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene revealed a high genetic diversity within the 82 C. parvum and 19 C. hominis specimens subtyped, including C. parvum zoonotic subtype families IIa (71) and IId (5) and anthroponotic subtype families IIc (2), IIb (1), IIe (1) and If-like (2), and C. hominis subtype families Id (13), Ie (5), and Ib (1). Overall, Cryptosporidium infection was associated with the occurrence of diarrhea and vomiting. Diarrhea was attributable mostly to C. parvum subtype family IIa and C. hominis, whereas vomiting was largely attributable to C. hominis and rare Cryptosporidium species. Calf contact was identified as a significant risk factor for infection with Cryptosporidium spp., especially C. parvum subtype family IIa. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results of the study indicate that C. parvum is a major cause of cryptosporidiosis in HIV-positive patients and zoonotic transmission is important in cryptosporidiosis epidemiology in Ethiopia. In addition, they confirm that different Cryptosporidium species and subtypes are linked to different clinical manifestations. SN - 1935-2735 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24743521/full_citation L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002831 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -