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Phthalic acid esters in soils from vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e95701.Plos

Abstract

Soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm, 10 cm to 20 cm, and 20 cm to 40 cm from 37 vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China, were collected, and 16 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All 16 PAEs could be detected in soils from vegetable greenhouses. The total of 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.939 mg/kg to 35.442 mg/kg, with an average of 6.748 mg/kg. Among four areas, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the average and maximum concentrations of Σ16PAEs in soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm appeared in Weifang, which has a long history of vegetable production and is famous for extensive greenhouse cultivation. Despite the different concentrations of Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions were comparable. Among the 16 PAEs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the most abundant. Compared with the results on agricultural soils in China, soils that are being used or were used for vegetable greenhouses had higher PAE concentrations. Among PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and DnBP exceeded soil allowable concentrations (in US) in more than 90% of the samples, and DnOP in more than 20%. Shandong Peninsula has the highest PAE contents, which suggests that this area is severely contaminated by PAEs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

College of Resources and Environment, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, China.College of Resources and Environment, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, China.College of Life Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, China.College of Resources and Environment, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, China.College of Resources and Environment, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24747982

Citation

Chai, Chao, et al. "Phthalic Acid Esters in Soils From Vegetable Greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China." PloS One, vol. 9, no. 4, 2014, pp. e95701.
Chai C, Cheng H, Ge W, et al. Phthalic acid esters in soils from vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China. PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e95701.
Chai, C., Cheng, H., Ge, W., Ma, D., & Shi, Y. (2014). Phthalic acid esters in soils from vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China. PloS One, 9(4), e95701. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095701
Chai C, et al. Phthalic Acid Esters in Soils From Vegetable Greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China. PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e95701. PubMed PMID: 24747982.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Phthalic acid esters in soils from vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China. AU - Chai,Chao, AU - Cheng,Hongzhen, AU - Ge,Wei, AU - Ma,Dong, AU - Shi,Yanxi, Y1 - 2014/04/18/ PY - 2013/11/09/received PY - 2014/03/28/accepted PY - 2014/4/22/entrez PY - 2014/4/22/pubmed PY - 2015/5/30/medline SP - e95701 EP - e95701 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS One VL - 9 IS - 4 N2 - Soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm, 10 cm to 20 cm, and 20 cm to 40 cm from 37 vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China, were collected, and 16 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All 16 PAEs could be detected in soils from vegetable greenhouses. The total of 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.939 mg/kg to 35.442 mg/kg, with an average of 6.748 mg/kg. Among four areas, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the average and maximum concentrations of Σ16PAEs in soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm appeared in Weifang, which has a long history of vegetable production and is famous for extensive greenhouse cultivation. Despite the different concentrations of Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions were comparable. Among the 16 PAEs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the most abundant. Compared with the results on agricultural soils in China, soils that are being used or were used for vegetable greenhouses had higher PAE concentrations. Among PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and DnBP exceeded soil allowable concentrations (in US) in more than 90% of the samples, and DnOP in more than 20%. Shandong Peninsula has the highest PAE contents, which suggests that this area is severely contaminated by PAEs. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24747982/Phthalic_acid_esters_in_soils_from_vegetable_greenhouses_in_Shandong_Peninsula_East_China_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095701 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -