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Architectures of planetary systems and implications for their formation.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014; 111(35):12616-21PN

Abstract

Doppler planet searches revealed that many giant planets orbit close to their host star or in highly eccentric orbits. These and subsequent observations inspired new theories of planet formation that invoke gravitation interactions in multiple planet systems to explain the excitation of orbital eccentricities and even short-period giant planets. Recently, NASA's Kepler mission has identified over 300 systems with multiple transiting planet candidates, including many potentially rocky planets. Most of these systems include multiple planets with closely spaced orbits and sizes between that of Earth and Neptune. These systems represent yet another new and unexpected class of planetary systems and provide an opportunity to test the theories developed to explain the properties of giant exoplanets. Presently, we have limited knowledge about such planetary systems, mostly about their sizes and orbital periods. With the advent of long-term, nearly continuous monitoring by Kepler, the method of transit timing variations (TTVs) has blossomed as a new technique for characterizing the gravitational effects of mutual planetary perturbations for hundreds of planets. TTVs can provide precise, but complex, constraints on planetary masses, densities, and orbits, even for planetary systems with faint host stars. In the coming years, astronomers will translate TTV observations into increasingly powerful constraints on the formation and orbital evolution of planetary systems with low-mass planets. Between TTVs, improved Doppler surveys, high-contrast imaging campaigns, and microlensing surveys, astronomers can look forward to a much better understanding of planet formation in the coming decade.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, andDepartment of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16803 ericbford@gmail.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24778212

Citation

Ford, Eric B.. "Architectures of Planetary Systems and Implications for Their Formation." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 111, no. 35, 2014, pp. 12616-21.
Ford EB. Architectures of planetary systems and implications for their formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2014;111(35):12616-21.
Ford, E. B. (2014). Architectures of planetary systems and implications for their formation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(35), pp. 12616-21. doi:10.1073/pnas.1304219111.
Ford EB. Architectures of Planetary Systems and Implications for Their Formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2014 Sep 2;111(35):12616-21. PubMed PMID: 24778212.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Architectures of planetary systems and implications for their formation. A1 - Ford,Eric B, Y1 - 2014/04/28/ PY - 2014/4/30/entrez PY - 2014/4/30/pubmed PY - 2014/4/30/medline KW - hot-Jupiters KW - super-Earths SP - 12616 EP - 21 JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America JO - Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. VL - 111 IS - 35 N2 - Doppler planet searches revealed that many giant planets orbit close to their host star or in highly eccentric orbits. These and subsequent observations inspired new theories of planet formation that invoke gravitation interactions in multiple planet systems to explain the excitation of orbital eccentricities and even short-period giant planets. Recently, NASA's Kepler mission has identified over 300 systems with multiple transiting planet candidates, including many potentially rocky planets. Most of these systems include multiple planets with closely spaced orbits and sizes between that of Earth and Neptune. These systems represent yet another new and unexpected class of planetary systems and provide an opportunity to test the theories developed to explain the properties of giant exoplanets. Presently, we have limited knowledge about such planetary systems, mostly about their sizes and orbital periods. With the advent of long-term, nearly continuous monitoring by Kepler, the method of transit timing variations (TTVs) has blossomed as a new technique for characterizing the gravitational effects of mutual planetary perturbations for hundreds of planets. TTVs can provide precise, but complex, constraints on planetary masses, densities, and orbits, even for planetary systems with faint host stars. In the coming years, astronomers will translate TTV observations into increasingly powerful constraints on the formation and orbital evolution of planetary systems with low-mass planets. Between TTVs, improved Doppler surveys, high-contrast imaging campaigns, and microlensing surveys, astronomers can look forward to a much better understanding of planet formation in the coming decade. SN - 1091-6490 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24778212/Architectures_of_planetary_systems_and_implications_for_their_formation_ L2 - http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=24778212 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -