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Neglected leptospirosis in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Indiana, USA.
Vet Q 2014; 34(1):1-10VQ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Leptospirosis is a globally important zoonotic disease occurring clinically and subclinically in humans and animals.

OBJECTIVES

To determine whether raccoons in Indiana carried leptospires in their kidneys.

ANIMALS AND METHODS

Thirty-four raccoons were live-trapped from two forest patches in central Indiana. Following euthanasia, a portion of kidney (2 cm(2)) from each raccoon was homogenized and used for leptospiral culture. Leptospiral cultures were subjected to DNA extraction and various polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures reported previously. Serum sample from each raccoon was collected and antibody titers to leptospiral serovars were determined by microscopic agglutination test (MAT).

RESULTS

All leptospiral cultures were positive for Leptospira by various PCR procedures. The PCR with the primers targeting the conservative region of LipL32 gene was the most sensitive PCR in the detection of pathogenic leptospires. The variable LipL32 PCR amplicons were sequenced and compared to the reference strains available in GenBank. Twelve kidney cultures had Leptospira interrogans, eight had Leptospira kirschneri and two had Leptospira borgpetersenii. They were predominantly Grippotyphosa serogroup. Antileptospire antibodies were detected in 16 out of 34 raccoons (47.1%) by MAT. There were titers ≥ 1:80 in 16 raccoons (47.1%) and titers ≥ 1:400 in 3 raccoons (8.8%). The highest leptospiral serovar-specific seroreactivity among 34 raccoons was L. interrogans Bratislava (38.2%) and L. interrogans Grippotyphosa (32.4%).

CONCLUSIONS

Raccoons in Indiana carry leptospiral organisms in kidneys and the leptospires are predominantly L. interrogans species and of the Grippotyphosa serogroup.

CLINICAL IMPORTANCE

The raccoons serve as reservoir hosts that exposure sources to wildlife, livestock, pets and humans.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a Department of Comparative Pathobiology , Purdue University , West Lafayette , IN 47907 , USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24784701

Citation

Tan, Ching Giap, et al. "Neglected Leptospirosis in Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) in Indiana, USA." The Veterinary Quarterly, vol. 34, no. 1, 2014, pp. 1-10.
Tan CG, Dharmarajan G, Beasley J, et al. Neglected leptospirosis in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Indiana, USA. Vet Q. 2014;34(1):1-10.
Tan, C. G., Dharmarajan, G., Beasley, J., Rhodes, O., Moore, G., Wu, C. C., & Lin, T. L. (2014). Neglected leptospirosis in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Indiana, USA. The Veterinary Quarterly, 34(1), pp. 1-10. doi:10.1080/01652176.2014.909960.
Tan CG, et al. Neglected Leptospirosis in Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) in Indiana, USA. Vet Q. 2014;34(1):1-10. PubMed PMID: 24784701.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Neglected leptospirosis in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Indiana, USA. AU - Tan,Ching Giap, AU - Dharmarajan,Guha, AU - Beasley,James, AU - Rhodes,Olin,Jr AU - Moore,George, AU - Wu,Ching Ching, AU - Lin,Tsang Long, Y1 - 2014/05/02/ PY - 2014/5/3/entrez PY - 2014/5/3/pubmed PY - 2015/1/7/medline KW - Procyon lotor KW - kidney KW - leptospira KW - public health KW - raccoon SP - 1 EP - 10 JF - The veterinary quarterly JO - Vet Q VL - 34 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a globally important zoonotic disease occurring clinically and subclinically in humans and animals. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether raccoons in Indiana carried leptospires in their kidneys. ANIMALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four raccoons were live-trapped from two forest patches in central Indiana. Following euthanasia, a portion of kidney (2 cm(2)) from each raccoon was homogenized and used for leptospiral culture. Leptospiral cultures were subjected to DNA extraction and various polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures reported previously. Serum sample from each raccoon was collected and antibody titers to leptospiral serovars were determined by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). RESULTS: All leptospiral cultures were positive for Leptospira by various PCR procedures. The PCR with the primers targeting the conservative region of LipL32 gene was the most sensitive PCR in the detection of pathogenic leptospires. The variable LipL32 PCR amplicons were sequenced and compared to the reference strains available in GenBank. Twelve kidney cultures had Leptospira interrogans, eight had Leptospira kirschneri and two had Leptospira borgpetersenii. They were predominantly Grippotyphosa serogroup. Antileptospire antibodies were detected in 16 out of 34 raccoons (47.1%) by MAT. There were titers ≥ 1:80 in 16 raccoons (47.1%) and titers ≥ 1:400 in 3 raccoons (8.8%). The highest leptospiral serovar-specific seroreactivity among 34 raccoons was L. interrogans Bratislava (38.2%) and L. interrogans Grippotyphosa (32.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Raccoons in Indiana carry leptospiral organisms in kidneys and the leptospires are predominantly L. interrogans species and of the Grippotyphosa serogroup. CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The raccoons serve as reservoir hosts that exposure sources to wildlife, livestock, pets and humans. SN - 1875-5941 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24784701/Neglected_leptospirosis_in_raccoons__Procyon_lotor__in_Indiana_USA_ L2 - http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01652176.2014.909960 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -