Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Extravirgin olive oil consumption reduces risk of atrial fibrillation: the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial.
Circulation. 2014 Jul 01; 130(1):18-26.Circ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) randomized primary prevention trial showed that a Mediterranean diet enriched with either extravirgin olive oil or mixed nuts reduces the incidence of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality. We assessed the effect of these diets on the incidence of atrial fibrillation in the PREDIMED trial.

METHODS AND RESULTS

Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets: Mediterranean diet supplemented with extravirgin olive oil, Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or advice to follow a low-fat diet (control group). Incident atrial fibrillation was adjudicated during follow-up by an events committee blinded to dietary group allocation. Among 6705 participants without prevalent atrial fibrillation at randomization, we observed 72 new cases of atrial fibrillation in the Mediterranean diet with extravirgin olive oil group, 82 in the Mediterranean diet with mixed nuts group, and 92 in the control group after median follow-up of 4.7 years. The Mediterranean diet with extravirgin olive oil significantly reduced the risk of atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.85 compared with the control group). No effect was found for the Mediterranean diet with nuts (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.20).

CONCLUSIONS

In the absence of proven interventions for the primary prevention of atrial fibrillation, this post hoc analysis of the PREDIMED trial suggests that extravirgin olive oil in the context of a Mediterranean dietary pattern may reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL

http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN35739639.

Authors+Show Affiliations

From the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (M.A.M.-G., E.T., P.B.-C., A.A.); the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., J.S.-S., J.F.-C., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., A.A.) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., M. Fiol, D.C., J.S.-S., E.R., M.I.C., J.F.-C., J.L., M.A.M., M. Fitó, L.S.-M., X.P., R.M.L.-R., J.V.S., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., R.E., A.A.), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain (F.A.); Institute of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (M.Fiol); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C., J.V.S.); Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, and Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S., N.B.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic (E.R., R.E.) and Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, Xarxa de Referència en Tecnologia dels Aliments, Instituto de Investigación en Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria (R.M.L.-R.), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, and Primary Care Division of Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut and IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain (M.I.C., M.A.M., M. Fitó); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain (J.F.-C.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (J.L.); Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain (L.S.-M.); Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, HospitalFrom the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (M.A.M.-G., E.T., P.B.-C., A.A.); the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., J.S.-S., J.F.-C., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., A.A.) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., M. Fiol, D.C., J.S.-S., E.R., M.I.C., J.F.-C., J.L., M.A.M., M. Fitó, L.S.-M., X.P., R.M.L.-R., J.V.S., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., R.E., A.A.), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain (F.A.); Institute of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (M.Fiol); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C., J.V.S.); Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, and Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S., N.B.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic (E.R., R.E.) and Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, Xarxa de Referència en Tecnologia dels Aliments, Instituto de Investigación en Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria (R.M.L.-R.), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, and Primary Care Division of Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut and IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain (M.I.C., M.A.M., M. Fitó); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain (J.F.-C.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (J.L.); Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain (L.S.-M.); Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, HospitalFrom the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (M.A.M.-G., E.T., P.B.-C., A.A.); the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., J.S.-S., J.F.-C., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., A.A.) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., M. Fiol, D.C., J.S.-S., E.R., M.I.C., J.F.-C., J.L., M.A.M., M. Fitó, L.S.-M., X.P., R.M.L.-R., J.V.S., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., R.E., A.A.), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain (F.A.); Institute of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (M.Fiol); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C., J.V.S.); Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, and Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S., N.B.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic (E.R., R.E.) and Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, Xarxa de Referència en Tecnologia dels Aliments, Instituto de Investigación en Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria (R.M.L.-R.), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, and Primary Care Division of Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut and IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain (M.I.C., M.A.M., M. Fitó); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain (J.F.-C.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (J.L.); Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain (L.S.-M.); Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, HospitalFrom the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (M.A.M.-G., E.T., P.B.-C., A.A.); the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., J.S.-S., J.F.-C., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., A.A.) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., M. Fiol, D.C., J.S.-S., E.R., M.I.C., J.F.-C., J.L., M.A.M., M. Fitó, L.S.-M., X.P., R.M.L.-R., J.V.S., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., R.E., A.A.), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain (F.A.); Institute of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (M.Fiol); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C., J.V.S.); Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, and Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S., N.B.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic (E.R., R.E.) and Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, Xarxa de Referència en Tecnologia dels Aliments, Instituto de Investigación en Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria (R.M.L.-R.), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, and Primary Care Division of Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut and IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain (M.I.C., M.A.M., M. Fitó); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain (J.F.-C.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (J.L.); Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain (L.S.-M.); Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, HospitalFrom the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (M.A.M.-G., E.T., P.B.-C., A.A.); the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., J.S.-S., J.F.-C., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., A.A.) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., M. Fiol, D.C., J.S.-S., E.R., M.I.C., J.F.-C., J.L., M.A.M., M. Fitó, L.S.-M., X.P., R.M.L.-R., J.V.S., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., R.E., A.A.), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain (F.A.); Institute of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (M.Fiol); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C., J.V.S.); Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, and Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S., N.B.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic (E.R., R.E.) and Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, Xarxa de Referència en Tecnologia dels Aliments, Instituto de Investigación en Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria (R.M.L.-R.), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, and Primary Care Division of Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut and IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain (M.I.C., M.A.M., M. Fitó); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain (J.F.-C.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (J.L.); Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain (L.S.-M.); Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, HospitalFrom the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (M.A.M.-G., E.T., P.B.-C., A.A.); the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., J.S.-S., J.F.-C., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., A.A.) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., M. Fiol, D.C., J.S.-S., E.R., M.I.C., J.F.-C., J.L., M.A.M., M. Fitó, L.S.-M., X.P., R.M.L.-R., J.V.S., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., R.E., A.A.), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain (F.A.); Institute of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (M.Fiol); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C., J.V.S.); Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, and Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S., N.B.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic (E.R., R.E.) and Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, Xarxa de Referència en Tecnologia dels Aliments, Instituto de Investigación en Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria (R.M.L.-R.), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, and Primary Care Division of Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut and IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain (M.I.C., M.A.M., M. Fitó); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain (J.F.-C.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (J.L.); Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain (L.S.-M.); Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, HospitalFrom the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (M.A.M.-G., E.T., P.B.-C., A.A.); the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., J.S.-S., J.F.-C., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., A.A.) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., M. Fiol, D.C., J.S.-S., E.R., M.I.C., J.F.-C., J.L., M.A.M., M. Fitó, L.S.-M., X.P., R.M.L.-R., J.V.S., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., R.E., A.A.), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain (F.A.); Institute of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (M.Fiol); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C., J.V.S.); Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, and Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S., N.B.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic (E.R., R.E.) and Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, Xarxa de Referència en Tecnologia dels Aliments, Instituto de Investigación en Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria (R.M.L.-R.), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, and Primary Care Division of Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut and IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain (M.I.C., M.A.M., M. Fitó); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain (J.F.-C.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (J.L.); Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain (L.S.-M.); Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, HospitalFrom the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (M.A.M.-G., E.T., P.B.-C., A.A.); the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., J.S.-S., J.F.-C., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., A.A.) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., M. Fiol, D.C., J.S.-S., E.R., M.I.C., J.F.-C., J.L., M.A.M., M. Fitó, L.S.-M., X.P., R.M.L.-R., J.V.S., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., R.E., A.A.), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain (F.A.); Institute of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (M.Fiol); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C., J.V.S.); Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, and Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S., N.B.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic (E.R., R.E.) and Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, Xarxa de Referència en Tecnologia dels Aliments, Instituto de Investigación en Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria (R.M.L.-R.), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, and Primary Care Division of Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut and IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain (M.I.C., M.A.M., M. Fitó); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain (J.F.-C.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (J.L.); Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain (L.S.-M.); Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, HospitalFrom the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (M.A.M.-G., E.T., P.B.-C., A.A.); the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., J.S.-S., J.F.-C., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., A.A.) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., M. Fiol, D.C., J.S.-S., E.R., M.I.C., J.F.-C., J.L., M.A.M., M. Fitó, L.S.-M., X.P., R.M.L.-R., J.V.S., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., R.E., A.A.), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain (F.A.); Institute of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (M.Fiol); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C., J.V.S.); Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, and Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S., N.B.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic (E.R., R.E.) and Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, Xarxa de Referència en Tecnologia dels Aliments, Instituto de Investigación en Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria (R.M.L.-R.), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, and Primary Care Division of Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut and IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain (M.I.C., M.A.M., M. Fitó); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain (J.F.-C.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (J.L.); Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain (L.S.-M.); Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, HospitalFrom the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (M.A.M.-G., E.T., P.B.-C., A.A.); the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., J.S.-S., J.F.-C., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., A.A.) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., M. Fiol, D.C., J.S.-S., E.R., M.I.C., J.F.-C., J.L., M.A.M., M. Fitó, L.S.-M., X.P., R.M.L.-R., J.V.S., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., R.E., A.A.), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain (F.A.); Institute of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (M.Fiol); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C., J.V.S.); Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, and Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S., N.B.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic (E.R., R.E.) and Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, Xarxa de Referència en Tecnologia dels Aliments, Instituto de Investigación en Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria (R.M.L.-R.), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, and Primary Care Division of Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut and IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain (M.I.C., M.A.M., M. Fitó); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain (J.F.-C.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (J.L.); Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain (L.S.-M.); Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, HospitalFrom the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (M.A.M.-G., E.T., P.B.-C., A.A.); the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., J.S.-S., J.F.-C., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., A.A.) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., M. Fiol, D.C., J.S.-S., E.R., M.I.C., J.F.-C., J.L., M.A.M., M. Fitó, L.S.-M., X.P., R.M.L.-R., J.V.S., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., R.E., A.A.), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain (F.A.); Institute of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (M.Fiol); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C., J.V.S.); Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, and Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S., N.B.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic (E.R., R.E.) and Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, Xarxa de Referència en Tecnologia dels Aliments, Instituto de Investigación en Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria (R.M.L.-R.), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, and Primary Care Division of Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut and IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain (M.I.C., M.A.M., M. Fitó); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain (J.F.-C.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (J.L.); Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain (L.S.-M.); Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, HospitalFrom the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (M.A.M.-G., E.T., P.B.-C., A.A.); the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., J.S.-S., J.F.-C., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., A.A.) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., M. Fiol, D.C., J.S.-S., E.R., M.I.C., J.F.-C., J.L., M.A.M., M. Fitó, L.S.-M., X.P., R.M.L.-R., J.V.S., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., R.E., A.A.), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain (F.A.); Institute of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (M.Fiol); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C., J.V.S.); Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, and Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S., N.B.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic (E.R., R.E.) and Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, Xarxa de Referència en Tecnologia dels Aliments, Instituto de Investigación en Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria (R.M.L.-R.), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, and Primary Care Division of Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut and IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain (M.I.C., M.A.M., M. Fitó); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain (J.F.-C.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (J.L.); Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain (L.S.-M.); Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, HospitalFrom the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (M.A.M.-G., E.T., P.B.-C., A.A.); the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., J.S.-S., J.F.-C., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., A.A.) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., M. Fiol, D.C., J.S.-S., E.R., M.I.C., J.F.-C., J.L., M.A.M., M. Fitó, L.S.-M., X.P., R.M.L.-R., J.V.S., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., R.E., A.A.), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain (F.A.); Institute of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (M.Fiol); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C., J.V.S.); Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, and Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S., N.B.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic (E.R., R.E.) and Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, Xarxa de Referència en Tecnologia dels Aliments, Instituto de Investigación en Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria (R.M.L.-R.), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, and Primary Care Division of Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut and IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain (M.I.C., M.A.M., M. Fitó); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain (J.F.-C.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (J.L.); Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain (L.S.-M.); Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, HospitalFrom the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (M.A.M.-G., E.T., P.B.-C., A.A.); the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., J.S.-S., J.F.-C., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., A.A.) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., M. Fiol, D.C., J.S.-S., E.R., M.I.C., J.F.-C., J.L., M.A.M., M. Fitó, L.S.-M., X.P., R.M.L.-R., J.V.S., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., R.E., A.A.), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain (F.A.); Institute of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (M.Fiol); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C., J.V.S.); Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, and Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S., N.B.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic (E.R., R.E.) and Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, Xarxa de Referència en Tecnologia dels Aliments, Instituto de Investigación en Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria (R.M.L.-R.), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, and Primary Care Division of Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut and IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain (M.I.C., M.A.M., M. Fitó); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain (J.F.-C.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (J.L.); Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain (L.S.-M.); Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, HospitalFrom the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (M.A.M.-G., E.T., P.B.-C., A.A.); the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., J.S.-S., J.F.-C., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., A.A.) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., M. Fiol, D.C., J.S.-S., E.R., M.I.C., J.F.-C., J.L., M.A.M., M. Fitó, L.S.-M., X.P., R.M.L.-R., J.V.S., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., R.E., A.A.), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain (F.A.); Institute of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (M.Fiol); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C., J.V.S.); Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, and Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S., N.B.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic (E.R., R.E.) and Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, Xarxa de Referència en Tecnologia dels Aliments, Instituto de Investigación en Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria (R.M.L.-R.), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, and Primary Care Division of Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut and IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain (M.I.C., M.A.M., M. Fitó); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain (J.F.-C.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (J.L.); Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain (L.S.-M.); Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, HospitalFrom the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (M.A.M.-G., E.T., P.B.-C., A.A.); the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., J.S.-S., J.F.-C., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., A.A.) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., M. Fiol, D.C., J.S.-S., E.R., M.I.C., J.F.-C., J.L., M.A.M., M. Fitó, L.S.-M., X.P., R.M.L.-R., J.V.S., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., R.E., A.A.), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain (F.A.); Institute of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (M.Fiol); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C., J.V.S.); Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, and Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S., N.B.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic (E.R., R.E.) and Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, Xarxa de Referència en Tecnologia dels Aliments, Instituto de Investigación en Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria (R.M.L.-R.), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, and Primary Care Division of Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut and IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain (M.I.C., M.A.M., M. Fitó); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain (J.F.-C.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (J.L.); Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain (L.S.-M.); Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, HospitalFrom the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (M.A.M.-G., E.T., P.B.-C., A.A.); the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., J.S.-S., J.F.-C., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., A.A.) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., M. Fiol, D.C., J.S.-S., E.R., M.I.C., J.F.-C., J.L., M.A.M., M. Fitó, L.S.-M., X.P., R.M.L.-R., J.V.S., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., R.E., A.A.), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain (F.A.); Institute of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (M.Fiol); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C., J.V.S.); Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, and Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S., N.B.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic (E.R., R.E.) and Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, Xarxa de Referència en Tecnologia dels Aliments, Instituto de Investigación en Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria (R.M.L.-R.), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, and Primary Care Division of Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut and IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain (M.I.C., M.A.M., M. Fitó); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain (J.F.-C.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (J.L.); Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain (L.S.-M.); Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, HospitalFrom the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (M.A.M.-G., E.T., P.B.-C., A.A.); the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., J.S.-S., J.F.-C., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., A.A.) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., M. Fiol, D.C., J.S.-S., E.R., M.I.C., J.F.-C., J.L., M.A.M., M. Fitó, L.S.-M., X.P., R.M.L.-R., J.V.S., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., R.E., A.A.), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain (F.A.); Institute of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (M.Fiol); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C., J.V.S.); Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, and Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S., N.B.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic (E.R., R.E.) and Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, Xarxa de Referència en Tecnologia dels Aliments, Instituto de Investigación en Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria (R.M.L.-R.), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, and Primary Care Division of Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut and IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain (M.I.C., M.A.M., M. Fitó); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain (J.F.-C.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (J.L.); Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain (L.S.-M.); Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, HospitalFrom the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (M.A.M.-G., E.T., P.B.-C., A.A.); the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., J.S.-S., J.F.-C., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., A.A.) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., M. Fiol, D.C., J.S.-S., E.R., M.I.C., J.F.-C., J.L., M.A.M., M. Fitó, L.S.-M., X.P., R.M.L.-R., J.V.S., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., R.E., A.A.), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain (F.A.); Institute of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (M.Fiol); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C., J.V.S.); Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, and Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S., N.B.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic (E.R., R.E.) and Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, Xarxa de Referència en Tecnologia dels Aliments, Instituto de Investigación en Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria (R.M.L.-R.), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, and Primary Care Division of Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut and IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain (M.I.C., M.A.M., M. Fitó); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain (J.F.-C.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (J.L.); Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain (L.S.-M.); Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, HospitalFrom the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (M.A.M.-G., E.T., P.B.-C., A.A.); the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., J.S.-S., J.F.-C., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., A.A.) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., M. Fiol, D.C., J.S.-S., E.R., M.I.C., J.F.-C., J.L., M.A.M., M. Fitó, L.S.-M., X.P., R.M.L.-R., J.V.S., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., R.E., A.A.), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain (F.A.); Institute of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (M.Fiol); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C., J.V.S.); Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, and Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S., N.B.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic (E.R., R.E.) and Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, Xarxa de Referència en Tecnologia dels Aliments, Instituto de Investigación en Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria (R.M.L.-R.), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, and Primary Care Division of Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut and IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain (M.I.C., M.A.M., M. Fitó); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain (J.F.-C.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (J.L.); Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain (L.S.-M.); Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, HospitalFrom the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (M.A.M.-G., E.T., P.B.-C., A.A.); the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Research Network (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., J.S.-S., J.F.-C., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., A.A.) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (M.A.M.-G., E.T., F.A., M. Fiol, D.C., J.S.-S., E.R., M.I.C., J.F.-C., J.L., M.A.M., M. Fitó, L.S.-M., X.P., R.M.L.-R., J.V.S., N.B., P.B.-C., V.R.-G., R.E., A.A.), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain (F.A.); Institute of Health Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (M.Fiol); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C., J.V.S.); Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry Biotechnology Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, and Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S., N.B.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic (E.R., R.E.) and Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, Xarxa de Referència en Tecnologia dels Aliments, Instituto de Investigación en Nutrición y Seguridad Alimentaria (R.M.L.-R.), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, and Primary Care Division of Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut and IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain (M.I.C., M.A.M., M. Fitó); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain (J.F.-C.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (J.L.); Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain (L.S.-M.); Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, HospitalNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24787471

Citation

Martínez-González, Miguel Á, et al. "Extravirgin Olive Oil Consumption Reduces Risk of Atrial Fibrillation: the PREDIMED (Prevención Con Dieta Mediterránea) Trial." Circulation, vol. 130, no. 1, 2014, pp. 18-26.
Martínez-González MÁ, Toledo E, Arós F, et al. Extravirgin olive oil consumption reduces risk of atrial fibrillation: the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial. Circulation. 2014;130(1):18-26.
Martínez-González, M. Á., Toledo, E., Arós, F., Fiol, M., Corella, D., Salas-Salvadó, J., Ros, E., Covas, M. I., Fernández-Crehuet, J., Lapetra, J., Muñoz, M. A., Fitó, M., Serra-Majem, L., Pintó, X., Lamuela-Raventós, R. M., Sorlí, J. V., Babio, N., Buil-Cosiales, P., Ruiz-Gutierrez, V., ... Alonso, A. (2014). Extravirgin olive oil consumption reduces risk of atrial fibrillation: the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial. Circulation, 130(1), 18-26. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.006921
Martínez-González MÁ, et al. Extravirgin Olive Oil Consumption Reduces Risk of Atrial Fibrillation: the PREDIMED (Prevención Con Dieta Mediterránea) Trial. Circulation. 2014 Jul 1;130(1):18-26. PubMed PMID: 24787471.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Extravirgin olive oil consumption reduces risk of atrial fibrillation: the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial. AU - Martínez-González,Miguel Á, AU - Toledo,Estefanía, AU - Arós,Fernando, AU - Fiol,Miquel, AU - Corella,Dolores, AU - Salas-Salvadó,Jordi, AU - Ros,Emilio, AU - Covas,Maria I, AU - Fernández-Crehuet,Joaquín, AU - Lapetra,José, AU - Muñoz,Miguel A, AU - Fitó,Monserrat, AU - Serra-Majem,Luis, AU - Pintó,Xavier, AU - Lamuela-Raventós,Rosa M, AU - Sorlí,Jose V, AU - Babio,Nancy, AU - Buil-Cosiales,Pilar, AU - Ruiz-Gutierrez,Valentina, AU - Estruch,Ramón, AU - Alonso,Alvaro, AU - ,, Y1 - 2014/04/30/ PY - 2014/5/3/entrez PY - 2014/5/3/pubmed PY - 2014/9/3/medline KW - antioxidants KW - arrhythmia KW - atrial fibrillation KW - diet KW - epidemiology KW - fatty acids, monounsaturated KW - inflammation SP - 18 EP - 26 JF - Circulation JO - Circulation VL - 130 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: The PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) randomized primary prevention trial showed that a Mediterranean diet enriched with either extravirgin olive oil or mixed nuts reduces the incidence of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality. We assessed the effect of these diets on the incidence of atrial fibrillation in the PREDIMED trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets: Mediterranean diet supplemented with extravirgin olive oil, Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or advice to follow a low-fat diet (control group). Incident atrial fibrillation was adjudicated during follow-up by an events committee blinded to dietary group allocation. Among 6705 participants without prevalent atrial fibrillation at randomization, we observed 72 new cases of atrial fibrillation in the Mediterranean diet with extravirgin olive oil group, 82 in the Mediterranean diet with mixed nuts group, and 92 in the control group after median follow-up of 4.7 years. The Mediterranean diet with extravirgin olive oil significantly reduced the risk of atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.85 compared with the control group). No effect was found for the Mediterranean diet with nuts (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.20). CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of proven interventions for the primary prevention of atrial fibrillation, this post hoc analysis of the PREDIMED trial suggests that extravirgin olive oil in the context of a Mediterranean dietary pattern may reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN35739639. SN - 1524-4539 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24787471/Extravirgin_olive_oil_consumption_reduces_risk_of_atrial_fibrillation:_the_PREDIMED__Prevención_con_Dieta_Mediterránea__trial_ L2 - http://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.006921?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -