Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Effect of the glycemic index of the diet on weight loss, modulation of satiety, inflammation, and other metabolic risk factors: a randomized controlled trial.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Low-glycemic index (GI) diets have been proven to have beneficial effects in such chronic conditions as type 2 diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and some types of cancer, but the effect of low-GI diets on weight loss, satiety, and inflammation is still controversial.

OBJECTIVE

We assessed the efficacy of 2 moderate-carbohydrate diets and a low-fat diet with different GIs on weight loss and the modulation of satiety, inflammation, and other metabolic risk markers.

DESIGN

The GLYNDIET study is a 6-mo randomized, parallel, controlled clinical trial conducted in 122 overweight and obese adults. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following 3 isocaloric energy-restricted diets for 6 mo: 1) a moderate-carbohydrate and high-GI diet (HGI), 2) a moderate-carbohydrate and low-GI diet (LGI), and 3) a low-fat and high-GI diet (LF).

RESULTS

At weeks 16 and 20 and the end of the intervention, changes in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) differed significantly between intervention groups. Reductions in BMI were greater in the LGI group than in the LF group, whereas in the HGI group, reductions in BMI did not differ significantly from those in the other 2 groups (LGI: -2.45 ± 0.27; HGI: -2.30 ± 0.27; LF: -1.43 ± 0.27; F = 4.616, P = 0.012; pairwise comparisons: LGI compared with HGI, P = 1.000; LGI compared with LF, P = 0.016; HGI compared with LF, P = 0.061). The decrease in fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, and homeostatic model assessment of β cell function was also significantly greater in the LGI group than in the LF group (P < 0.05). Despite this tendency for a greater improvement with a low-GI diet, the 3 intervention groups were not observed to have different effects on hunger, satiety, lipid profiles, or other inflammatory and metabolic risk markers.

CONCLUSION

A low-GI and energy-restricted diet containing moderate amounts of carbohydrates may be more effective than a high-GI and low-fat diet at reducing body weight and controlling glucose and insulin metabolism. This trial was registered at Current Controlled Trials (www.controlled-trials.com) as ISRCTN54971867.

Links

  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    From the Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institut d'Investigació Sanitaria Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/ Sant Llorenç, Reus, Spain (MJ-F, JS-S, NI-J, AD-L, MG-F, PH-A, RB, and MB); the Centros de Investigación Biomédica en Redobn Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Instituto de Salut Carlos III, Madrid, Spain (MJ-F, JS-S, NI-J, AD-L, MG-F, RB, and MB); and the Nutrition Unit, Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Reus, Spain (AR-S).

    ,

    From the Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institut d'Investigació Sanitaria Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/ Sant Llorenç, Reus, Spain (MJ-F, JS-S, NI-J, AD-L, MG-F, PH-A, RB, and MB); the Centros de Investigación Biomédica en Redobn Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Instituto de Salut Carlos III, Madrid, Spain (MJ-F, JS-S, NI-J, AD-L, MG-F, RB, and MB); and the Nutrition Unit, Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Reus, Spain (AR-S).

    ,

    From the Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institut d'Investigació Sanitaria Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/ Sant Llorenç, Reus, Spain (MJ-F, JS-S, NI-J, AD-L, MG-F, PH-A, RB, and MB); the Centros de Investigación Biomédica en Redobn Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Instituto de Salut Carlos III, Madrid, Spain (MJ-F, JS-S, NI-J, AD-L, MG-F, RB, and MB); and the Nutrition Unit, Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Reus, Spain (AR-S).

    ,

    From the Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institut d'Investigació Sanitaria Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/ Sant Llorenç, Reus, Spain (MJ-F, JS-S, NI-J, AD-L, MG-F, PH-A, RB, and MB); the Centros de Investigación Biomédica en Redobn Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Instituto de Salut Carlos III, Madrid, Spain (MJ-F, JS-S, NI-J, AD-L, MG-F, RB, and MB); and the Nutrition Unit, Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Reus, Spain (AR-S).

    ,

    From the Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institut d'Investigació Sanitaria Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/ Sant Llorenç, Reus, Spain (MJ-F, JS-S, NI-J, AD-L, MG-F, PH-A, RB, and MB); the Centros de Investigación Biomédica en Redobn Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Instituto de Salut Carlos III, Madrid, Spain (MJ-F, JS-S, NI-J, AD-L, MG-F, RB, and MB); and the Nutrition Unit, Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Reus, Spain (AR-S).

    ,

    From the Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institut d'Investigació Sanitaria Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/ Sant Llorenç, Reus, Spain (MJ-F, JS-S, NI-J, AD-L, MG-F, PH-A, RB, and MB); the Centros de Investigación Biomédica en Redobn Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Instituto de Salut Carlos III, Madrid, Spain (MJ-F, JS-S, NI-J, AD-L, MG-F, RB, and MB); and the Nutrition Unit, Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Reus, Spain (AR-S).

    ,

    From the Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institut d'Investigació Sanitaria Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/ Sant Llorenç, Reus, Spain (MJ-F, JS-S, NI-J, AD-L, MG-F, PH-A, RB, and MB); the Centros de Investigación Biomédica en Redobn Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Instituto de Salut Carlos III, Madrid, Spain (MJ-F, JS-S, NI-J, AD-L, MG-F, RB, and MB); and the Nutrition Unit, Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Reus, Spain (AR-S).

    ,

    From the Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institut d'Investigació Sanitaria Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/ Sant Llorenç, Reus, Spain (MJ-F, JS-S, NI-J, AD-L, MG-F, PH-A, RB, and MB); the Centros de Investigación Biomédica en Redobn Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Instituto de Salut Carlos III, Madrid, Spain (MJ-F, JS-S, NI-J, AD-L, MG-F, RB, and MB); and the Nutrition Unit, Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Reus, Spain (AR-S).

    From the Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institut d'Investigació Sanitaria Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/ Sant Llorenç, Reus, Spain (MJ-F, JS-S, NI-J, AD-L, MG-F, PH-A, RB, and MB); the Centros de Investigación Biomédica en Redobn Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Instituto de Salut Carlos III, Madrid, Spain (MJ-F, JS-S, NI-J, AD-L, MG-F, RB, and MB); and the Nutrition Unit, Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Reus, Spain (AR-S).

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Biomarkers
    Blood Glucose
    Blood Pressure
    Body Mass Index
    Cholesterol, HDL
    Cholesterol, LDL
    Diet, Fat-Restricted
    Dietary Carbohydrates
    Dietary Fats
    Dietary Proteins
    Energy Intake
    Female
    Glycemic Index
    Humans
    Hunger
    Inflammation
    Insulin
    Insulin Resistance
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Motor Activity
    Nutrition Assessment
    Obesity
    Overweight
    Risk Factors
    Satiation
    Weight Loss

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    24787494

    Citation

    Juanola-Falgarona, Martí, et al. "Effect of the Glycemic Index of the Diet On Weight Loss, Modulation of Satiety, Inflammation, and Other Metabolic Risk Factors: a Randomized Controlled Trial." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 100, no. 1, 2014, pp. 27-35.
    Juanola-Falgarona M, Salas-Salvadó J, Ibarrola-Jurado N, et al. Effect of the glycemic index of the diet on weight loss, modulation of satiety, inflammation, and other metabolic risk factors: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(1):27-35.
    Juanola-Falgarona, M., Salas-Salvadó, J., Ibarrola-Jurado, N., Rabassa-Soler, A., Díaz-López, A., Guasch-Ferré, M., ... Bulló, M. (2014). Effect of the glycemic index of the diet on weight loss, modulation of satiety, inflammation, and other metabolic risk factors: a randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 100(1), pp. 27-35. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.081216.
    Juanola-Falgarona M, et al. Effect of the Glycemic Index of the Diet On Weight Loss, Modulation of Satiety, Inflammation, and Other Metabolic Risk Factors: a Randomized Controlled Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(1):27-35. PubMed PMID: 24787494.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of the glycemic index of the diet on weight loss, modulation of satiety, inflammation, and other metabolic risk factors: a randomized controlled trial. AU - Juanola-Falgarona,Martí, AU - Salas-Salvadó,Jordi, AU - Ibarrola-Jurado,Núria, AU - Rabassa-Soler,Antoni, AU - Díaz-López,Andrés, AU - Guasch-Ferré,Marta, AU - Hernández-Alonso,Pablo, AU - Balanza,Rafael, AU - Bulló,Mònica, Y1 - 2014/04/30/ PY - 2014/5/3/entrez PY - 2014/5/3/pubmed PY - 2015/5/6/medline SP - 27 EP - 35 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 100 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Low-glycemic index (GI) diets have been proven to have beneficial effects in such chronic conditions as type 2 diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and some types of cancer, but the effect of low-GI diets on weight loss, satiety, and inflammation is still controversial. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the efficacy of 2 moderate-carbohydrate diets and a low-fat diet with different GIs on weight loss and the modulation of satiety, inflammation, and other metabolic risk markers. DESIGN: The GLYNDIET study is a 6-mo randomized, parallel, controlled clinical trial conducted in 122 overweight and obese adults. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following 3 isocaloric energy-restricted diets for 6 mo: 1) a moderate-carbohydrate and high-GI diet (HGI), 2) a moderate-carbohydrate and low-GI diet (LGI), and 3) a low-fat and high-GI diet (LF). RESULTS: At weeks 16 and 20 and the end of the intervention, changes in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) differed significantly between intervention groups. Reductions in BMI were greater in the LGI group than in the LF group, whereas in the HGI group, reductions in BMI did not differ significantly from those in the other 2 groups (LGI: -2.45 ± 0.27; HGI: -2.30 ± 0.27; LF: -1.43 ± 0.27; F = 4.616, P = 0.012; pairwise comparisons: LGI compared with HGI, P = 1.000; LGI compared with LF, P = 0.016; HGI compared with LF, P = 0.061). The decrease in fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, and homeostatic model assessment of β cell function was also significantly greater in the LGI group than in the LF group (P < 0.05). Despite this tendency for a greater improvement with a low-GI diet, the 3 intervention groups were not observed to have different effects on hunger, satiety, lipid profiles, or other inflammatory and metabolic risk markers. CONCLUSION: A low-GI and energy-restricted diet containing moderate amounts of carbohydrates may be more effective than a high-GI and low-fat diet at reducing body weight and controlling glucose and insulin metabolism. This trial was registered at Current Controlled Trials (www.controlled-trials.com) as ISRCTN54971867. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24787494/Effect_of_the_glycemic_index_of_the_diet_on_weight_loss_modulation_of_satiety_inflammation_and_other_metabolic_risk_factors:_a_randomized_controlled_trial_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.113.081216 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -